I have a downloadable pdf on my website that includes a page with hole sizes for various birds. Many woodpeckers carve into trees to find food in the form of insects or sap. In other words, woodpeckers rely on their carving ability. Sap wells are unique woodpecker holes that are not targeted around a particular prey species. These holes are often big enough to break a small tree in half. The damage from woodpeckers will normally appear as holes in the tree. Woodpeckers are a family of birds that have uniquely adapted when it comes to finding food. It is a known fact that the sapsucker woodpecker can and does cause a lot of damage to trees. Without the woodpecker's tell-tale holes, you might have gone on thinking all was well, until a wind storm toppled the weakened tree into your house. Answer: Your tree has been visited by woodpeckers or sapsuckers. By pecking on to the wood, they make holes on the tree to structure their future nest. Usually, these birds excavate their large nests in the cavities of dead trees and have multiple entrance holes. Pileated woodpeckers are large birds native to North America. Pileated Woodpeckers also excavate nesting cavities, usually around 50 feet up in large dead trees. Excavating deep into rotten wood to get at the nests of carpenter ants, the Pileated leaves characteristic rectangular holes in dead trees. Woodpeckers are a major headache for utility companies (they love to peck holes in poles) and the U.S. military, who have, along with the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, sponsored or assisted scientific testing of bird deterrents in hopes of finding an effective solution to woodpecker problems. If you want to create holes for the birds I would use the standard sizes for making birdhouses and their openings. Look (and listen) for Pileated Woodpeckers whacking at dead trees and fallen logs in search of their main prey, carpenter ants, leaving unique rectangular holes in the wood. Woodpeckers even chisel away at creosote-soaked utility poles with no harmful effects to the bird. Pileated woodpeckers aren’t after your trees; they’re in pursuit of an ant colony. Woodpeckers usually drill the holes in trees. Many species of woodpeckers excavate one hole per breeding season, sometimes after multiple attempts. It’s nearly the size of a crow, black with bold white stripes down the neck and a flaming-red crest. To identify cavity trees or to discover signs of the presence of pileated woodpeckers, look for large wood chips at, or near, the base of a tree. The tree was already going down, the woodpecker just let you know about it. Woody Woodpecker, the famous cartoon character, is a Pileated Woodpecker. If you notice woodpecker damage to your trees and you are wondering how to deter woodpeckers from ruining your landscaping, consider wrapping them in affordable burlap bags. Determined birds nearly equal in size to the crow, pileated woodpeckers are equipped with strong skulls and sturdy beaks used to excavate cavities for roosting and nesting. These long necks give the woodpecker more force than a shorter neck, necessary for ripping deep holes in trees, which they accomplish by wedging their long, stiff, tail against the tree … The pileated woodpecker is very similar to the presumed extinct ivory-billed woodpecker. Woodpeckers may also be excavating nesting and rooting cavities, making holes that are only slightly larger than the woodpecker itself and not a serious threat to healthy trees. The nest cavity is unlined except for wood chips. The pileated woodpecker also likes to feed on caterpillars and larvae, and it will more than likely visit your backyard if you have a feeder filled with suet. 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