Anhydrous ammonia gas is considerably lighter than air and will rise in dry air. Our refrigerant grade ammonia is 99.98% pure with minimal levels of moisture and other impurities, making it ideal for use in all types of refrigeration systems. In a wide range of applications, it outperforms synthetic refrigerants. Test and analyze the ammonia periodically for oxygen and water content. ammonia. Ammonia is substantially less expensive than CFCs or HCFCs; There are two key disadvantages to using ammonia as a refrigerant: It is not compatible with copper, so it cannot be used in any system with copper pipes. off. The refrigerants should be non poisonous to humans and food … Buy this standard This standard was last reviewed and confirmed in 2014. Ammonia Latent heat of vaporization (1.013 bar at boiling point) : 1371.2 kJ/kg; Ammonia Vapor pressure (at 21 o C or 70 o F) : 8.88 bar; Ammonia Critical point - Critical temperature : 132.4 o C - Critical pressure : 112.8 bar; Ammonia Gas Density (1.013 bar at boiling point) : 0.86 kg/m 3; Ammonia Gas Density (1.013 bar and 15 o C (59 o F)) : 0.73 kg/m 3 Properties – Colorless, non-toxic, non-flammable, and non-corrosive gas. [. 1. At the technical level, because the properties of ammonia are most suitable for large refrigeration systems, it is likely that there would be a large amount of ammonia in the system. "�A$w���d�����c`bd`����H5�?���� q# High concentrations in the air can also dissolve in the moisture of the skin or perspiration and result in a corrosive action on the skin and mucous membranes. On the other hand, anhydrous ammonia is essentially pure (over 99 percent) ammonia. Calculate online thermodynamic and transport properties of ammmonia based on industrial formulation (formulated in Helmholtz energy) for advanced technical applications. In ice plants, as a refrigerant; In furniture industry, as a cleansing agent for furniture and glass surfaces. the eye can occur depending on whether a spray or gas is Preserving the purity of the ammonia is essential to ensure proper function of the refrigeration system. Therefore this version remains current. As a result, anhydrous ammonia burns keep spreading until the chemical is diluted. Alkalis, such as ammonia cause liquidization of tissue and turn tissue into a sticky "goo" and mix with this tissue, causing further damage. Investigate accidents and near misses Household ammonia is a diluted water solution containing 5 to 10 percent ammonia. Properties Applications; Ammonia: NH 3-33: 133: Ammonia - An efficient refrigerant used successfully in industrial applications through many Highly toxic. ammonia. In a wide range of applications, it outperforms synthetic refrigerants. Refrigerant grade anhydrous ammonia is a clear, colorless liquid or gas, free from visible impurities. Anhydrous ammonia is an alkali. Its ODP and GWP are 0.” "Anhydrous" is a Greek word meaning "without water;" therefore, anhydrous ammonia in ammonia without water. At the same time, the pressure in the container will increase from 16 pounds per square inch (psi) to 110 psi. Water cannot have a content above 33 parts per million (ppm) and oil cannot have a content above 2 ppm. Ineffective refrigeration due to excess oil within the system, causing the system to work harder than necessary, thus stressing the system components. averaged over an 8 hour shift. Refrigerant properties. Ammonia Refrigeration. Es ist das am weitesten verbreitete unter Klassikern alternative Kältemittel.Zwei Eigenschaften von R-717: das Sättigungsverhältnis zwischen Druck und Temperatur sowie der Volumenstrom pro Einheit der Kühlleistung, ähnlich wie bei R-22 und R-502. tanks. Establish and implement written procedures Routinely inspect for corrosion of the receiving and storage vessel as part of a mechanical integrity program. However, there are apprehensions and misconceptions due to toxic nature of Ammonia. Sat. So, you have a highly efficient refrigerant with no impact on the climate. In this situation, it is important that everyone must have a better understanding of the use of ammonia as a refrigerant. For those using the thermodynamic properties for ammonia refrigeration cycle analysis, Appendix B contains a number of Ammonia Refrigeration Application Tables. Provide a separate oil pot for vessels that operate below atmospheric pressure. Generally, this guideline provides minimum information and recommendations on how employers and employees can control the operation and maintenance of the system in order to reduce and manage its risk accordingly. %PDF-1.5 %���� Power 22.7 kW each with air cooled condenser Two stage reciprocating compressor 4 Problematic procedures may be to blame. Ammonia in water solution is called Uses … When inhaled suddenly, it brings tears into the eyes. is in a partially filled, closed container it is heated from 0°F to 68°F, the volume of the liquid will increase by about It is hazardous when released in large quantities due to its toxicity. and to facilities. * It condenses at pressures that are relatively low too. At 68°F, about 700 volumes of vapor can be dissolved in one volume of water to make a solution containing 34 647 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<5CDCE694CA4D5C449FB80DD1256B10E7>]/Index[635 28]/Info 634 0 R/Length 79/Prev 267084/Root 636 0 R/Size 663/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Decontaminate the victim as quickly as possible. 0 e) r717 ammonia properties. R-717 Ammonia Pressure Chart. Sat. [. Ammonia, especially in the presence of moisture, reacts with and corrodes copper, zinc, and many alloys. Ammonia is extremely soluble in water and is frequently used as a water solution called aqua ammonia. First, flush the eyes with clean water. Technical considerations in the use of ammonia as a refrigerant gas. It’s origins as a refrigerant can be traced all the way back to the 1800’s and it was one of the first refrigerants used in a variety of applications. It gives a low refrigeration effect. Ammonia is poisonous in high concentrations. Plant construction costs will be lower for the same plant layout and identical choice of materials. Refrigerant grade anhydrous ammonia is a clear, colorless gas or liquid and about 99.95% pure. Physical Properties of Ammonia. Volume : Internal Energy : Enthalpy : Entropy: deg-C : kPa : m^3/kg : kJ/kg : kJ/kg : kJ/kg*K: Temp. Ammonia is still, without a doubt, the most important industrial refrigerant in the present day because of its good thermodynamic properties and it’s cheap. ENGIE REFRIGERATION GMBH | AMMONIA REFRIGERANT. One It is also widely considered one of the most efficient refrigerants available. Remove contaminated clothing, but only after careful flushing and warming to prevent the previously mentioned problem of skin sticking to the clothing. This may result in ammonia weeping from a crack within the refrigeration system. Chemical Properties Toxicity. R-717, or Anhydrous Ammonia, is widely regarded as one of the most efficient refrigerants in the world. Only iron, steel, certain rubbers and plastics, and specific nonferrous alloys resistant to ammonia should be used for fabrications of anhydrous ammonia containers, Ammonia is used as a refrigerant because * It's pressure is very low when evaporated to produce the temperatures needed for refrigeration. 4.1 Physical properties ... management on ammonia refrigeration system for industrial application at their workplace. Provide training specific to the handling of ammonia. Follow operating procedures for charging the system to prevent impurities from being introduced. 3. If the plant is outside or on the roof of a building, the escaping ammonia can drift away without harming occupants. High latent heat of vaporization High latent heat of vaporization is desirable in a refrigerant. The institute claims ammonia has an “ozone depletion potential (ODP) of zero and a global warming potential (GWP) of zero.” Ammonia’s thermal properties mean it uses less energy than other refrigerant options in large industrial applications. The most reliable way to be safe is to choose a refrigerant that is neither toxic nor flammable. [. Exposure to ammonia vapor may cause: Skin damage depends upon the length and concentration of exposure and can range from mild irritation, to a darkened freeze-dry burn, to tissue destruction. It results in a high refrigerating . Ammonia (NH 3) is a well-known refrigerant, particularly applicable in large, industrial plants where its advantages can be fully utilized without compromising safety.. Ammonia is renowned for its favorable thermodynamic properties. Our refrigerant grade ammonia is 99.98% pure with minimal levels of moisture and other impurities, making it ideal for use in all types of refrigeration systems. Last month, a 5000 pound ammonia leak occurred at a Boston-area seafood warehouse that killed one worker and forced a shelter-in-place order from Boston Police. to manage changes to equipment, procedures, It belongs to the group of so called “natural” refrigerants, and it has both GWP (Global Warming Potential) and ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) equal to zero. The spray is also capable of freezing clothing to So, you have a highly efficient refrigerant with no impact on the climate. or modified significantly enough to require a The odor threshold for ammonia is between 5 - 50 parts per million (ppm) of air. (16 to 25 percent by weight in air) will burn. they need to be using respiratory protection. Assists employers and employees in identifying and controlling the hazards associated with the operation and maintenance of ammonia refrigeration systems. tissue. Sat. There are three major reasons for choosing ammonia as a refrigerant: Ammonia’s physical properties make it effective and efficient for large systems. It’s origins as a refrigerant can be traced all the way back to the 1800’s and it was one of the first refrigerants used in a variety of applications. Physical Properties of Ammonia. Why Ammonia Refrigeration? Ammonia has better heat transfer properties than most chemical refrigerants, enabling equipment with a smaller heat transfer area to be used. due to environment friendly properties of Ammonia. destruction of delicate respiratory Ammonia is one of the refrigerants most commonly used in the absorption-type air-conditioning systems. Preserving the purity of the ammonia is essential to ensure proper function of the refrigeration system. However, even in small concentrations in the air it can be extremely irritating to the Table A-5 — Superheated Vapor Properties of Ammonia — SI Unitsusing REFPROP (Version 7.0) with 0°C datums of 200 kJ/kg enthalpy and 1.000 kJ/kg-K entropy. Install a non-condensable gas (oil and water) separator (purge units) into the system. Liquid and gas ammonia expand and contract with changes in pressure and temperature. Its molecular weight is 17 and boiling point is -28 degree F (-2.22 degree C). Ammonia is a chemical consisting of one atom of nitrogen and three atoms of hydrogen. Establish and implement an emergency action It has a pungent odor with and an alkaline or soapy taste. Table A-4 — Saturation Properties of Ammonia — SI Units using REFPROP (Version 7.0) with 0°C datums of 200 kJ/kg enthalpy and 1.000 kJ/kg-K entropy. If the tank is 90 percent full at SI units. This is why ammonia is used in refrigeration systems. Liquid ammonia will expand by 850 times when evaporating: This may result in a catastrophic failure of bulk storage vessels. Saturated Ammonia --Temperature Table : Spec. Ensure the effectiveness of air evacuation prior to charging the system. Provide employees information pertaining to the hazards of Ensure ammonia being introduced to the system is refrigerant grade. It is lighter than air and is therefore collected by the downward displacement of air. [, Conduct a pre-startup safety review prior to introducing ammonia when the equipment is new However, ammonia vapor in high concentrations About eight gallons of ammonia weighs the same as five gallons of water. OSHA eTool. Stress corrosion cracking proceeds more rapidly at high temperatures. skin so that if the clothing is removed incorrectly whole sections of skin can be torn Calculation of thermodynamic state variables of ammonia. It has a pungent odor with and an alkaline or soapy taste. However, ammonia does exhibit a unique refrigerant characteristic due to its irritating odor. Ammonia refrigeration works much like Industrial Refrigeration systems using synthetic refrigerants, with the major exception being that it uses anhydrous ammonia as the refrigerant. Therefore ammonia cannot be used for small refrigeration systems. When inhaled suddenly, it brings tears into the eyes. lower limit for calculation: -50 C, 1 bar upper limit: 300 C, 500 bar. N H H H Ammonia gas mixes with the humidity from the air, forms a mist and thus becomes heavier than air Ammonia as a substance is »greedy for water« 1 litre of water can absorb 520 grams of ammonia at 20 °C In dry air, ammonia gas is lighter than air and therefore rises ENGIE REFRIGERATION GMBH | AMMONIA REFRIGERANT 3. [. Safety. Careful consideration must be given to any design or application. h�b```� ,��� A������M5�?h���5��Df.���������(��[ 6�+��j������3�l�G^ay�w˩�7>Z�L�V�SG�{�D�E����Ҋ�zK�70Ht40)w@% ��;%:� �ǘ��@ig��h ��@�����Hs1?H�QH� �pG�Pq``��W���Ϝ0l�:� !M�GGA��h=��b`~R��d�2���!�2b`ҁ*S 0 ��kR involved. This is a list of refrigerants, sorted by their ASHRAE-designated numbers, commonly known as R numbers. eyes, throat, and breathing passages. 0°F, it will become 99 percent full at 68°F. Ammonia penetrates the eye more rapidly than other alkalis. It is unlikely that such concentrations will occur except in confined spaces or in the proximity of In very large cooling systems, like those in food processing facilities, ammonia is a common choice of refrigerant. Penetrating odor, soluble in water. Ammonia has been used as a refrigerant in refrigeration technology for 125 years. In the manufacture of nitric acid by Ostwald's process. endstream endobj 636 0 obj <. plan in case of release. cubic foot of liquid at 60°F expands to, 850 We can offer product meeting IIAR and/or ASHRAE specifications in a range of cylinders and drum tanks to suit all applications. Ammonia is an efficient and popular refrigerant due to its superior thermodynamic properties and low cost. Most of the halogenated refrigerants meet these requirements. change in the process safety information. Because liquid ammonia boils at -28°F, the expanding gas has the potential to freeze anything in its path of release, including human flesh and organs. Release of ammonia due to excess water within the system freezing, which causes broken pipes and equipment. wound. We can offer product meeting IIAR and/or ASHRAE specifications in a range of cylinders and drum tanks to suit all applications. %%EOF This makes the equipments compact and reduced the operating cost. The Linde Group offers high quality refrigerant ammonia. Ammonia (NH 3) is a well-known refrigerant, particularly applicable in large, industrial plants where its advantages can be fully utilized without compromising safety. h�bbd```b``��+@$��d5��@$G>�� The purity of the anhydrous ammonia is vital to the properties that make it a good refrigerant. High Heat Transfer Coefficient. Anhydrous ammonia is easily absorbed by water. Higher heat transfer coefficient requires smaller area and lower pressure drop. Pressure: Temperature: Calculation of thermodynamic state variables of ammonia on the boiling curve. 30% of agricultural nitrogen applied in the US is in the form of anhydrous ammonia and worldwide 110 million tonnes are applied each year. It is these two reasons […] Ammonia will keep spreading across contacted skin until the chemical is diluted by skin moisture. U.S. Department of Labor  |  Occupational Safety & Health Administration  |  200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210. The fire hazard from ammonia is increased by the presence of oil or other combustible materials. Refrigerant properties Application ranges Overview lubricants to the digital Refrigerant Report. In addition to liquidization, super-cooled anhydrous ammonia spray causes a freeze dry effect like frost bite when it hits the skin. Ammonia is the most environmentally friendly refrigerant. The rapid evaporation causes the temperature of the liquid to drop until it reaches the normal boiling point of -28°F, a similar effect occurs when water evaporates off the skin, thus cooling it. In the lungs, liquid anhydrous ammonia causes Thermodynamic Properties of Ammonia Thermodynamic Property Tables Reader is directed to Appendix A of this Data Book for an extensive set of Thermodynamic Property tables. cubic foot of gas. Ammonia is a colorless gas. Ammonia is environmentally benign, having zero GWP and zero ODP. The permissible exposure limit (PEL) is 50 ppm It is readily available, inexpensive, operates at pressures comparable with other refrigerants and is capable of absorbing large amounts of heat when it evaporates. Ammonia will combine with mercury to form a fulminate which is an unstable explosive compound. In today's world, other properties of the refrigerant are more important. 3) Air. Refrigerant grade anhydrous ammonia is a clear, colorless liquid or gas, free from visible impurities. Comparison R404a V/S Ammonia For cold room Design Basis-3 Rooms, Each 12mx24mx9m-Sotage 500 Ton each Temperature -200 C, For storage of Frozen Products, Refrigeration load 3x42kW=126kW R404a-Air Cooled R717-Ammonia-Water cooled 2units per Room screw compressors-6nos. However, it has a number of drawbacks that have so far prevented the use of ammonia for commercial … For those using the thermodynamic properties for ammonia refrigeration cycle analysis, Appendix B contains a number of Ammonia Refrigeration Application Tables. Ammonia, also known as R-717, is one of the oldest refrigerants. In the US as of 2019, approximately 88% of ammonia was used as fertilizers either as its salts, solutions or anhydrously. lower limit for calculation: -75 C, 0.08 bar bar upper limit: 130 C, 108 bar. Any water source is acceptable; such as showers, hoses, or stock Refrigeration grade ammonia is 99.98 percent pure and is relatively free of water and other impurities (maximum: 150 ppm water, 3 ppm oil, 0.2 ml/g non-condensibles). 662 0 obj <>stream Ammonia is a toxic refrigerant, and it is also flammable at certain concentrations. Maintain the purge unit according to manufactures specifications. Tablet of the Propertie* of Aqua-Ammonia Solutiont By Burgess H. Jennings1 and Francis P. Shannon2 THESE tables of aqua-ammonia make available com­ plete and accessible tabulations, in the English lan­ guage and in customary engineering units, of the proper­ ties of aqua-ammonia solutions. These properties also benefit the system’s thermodynamic efficiency, reducing operating costs. 635 0 obj <> endobj Anhydrous ammonia is a clear liquid that boils at a temperature of -28°F. Ammonia is not, strictly speaking, a poison and repeated exposure to it produces no additive (chronic) effects on the human body. Then flush the whole body or the exposed area with generous amounts of water; includes the hair, ears, under chin, and armpits. 10 percent. percent ammonia by weight. It is at least 99.95 percent pure ammonia. In refrigeration systems, the liquid is stored in closed containers under pressure. Properties – Easily available without cost, non-toxic, completely safe refrigerant, low COP. Ammonia is a colorless gas. Toxicity is the important properties of refrigerants. aqua ammonia or ammonium hydroxide. When applied to soil, it helps provide increased yields of crops such as maize and wheat. endstream endobj startxref Anhydrous ammonia is classified by the Department of Transportation as nonflammable. Two factors, however, mitigate this risk: ammonia’s distinctive smell is detectable at concentrations well below those considered to be … Alkalis effect tissue differently than acids, which tend to burn and seal off a Refrigerant development and legal situation Stratospheric ozone depletion as well as at-mospheric greenhouse effect due to refriger-ant emissions have led to drastic changes in the refrigeration and air conditioning tech-nology since the beginning of the 1990s. ISO 17584:2005 specifies thermophysical properties of several commonly used refrigerants and refrigerant blends. Manfred Hofmann, expert and head of dka training at ENGIE Refrigeration, says: “NH3, or R717, is one of only a few climate-neutral refrigerants, in that it neither damages the ozone layer nor contributes to the greenhouse effect. Not only is it efficient it also has zero Ozone Depletion Potential and has a Global Warming Potential of zero. Ammonia, also known as R-717, is one of the oldest refrigerants. It is recommended that if an employee can smell it they ought to back off and determine if 2.1.6. Properties of ammonia … Essential properties required in a refrigerant are as follows: They are not in the order of precedence as overtime priorities change when the impact on the Ozone Layer is considered the most important. For example, if liquid anhydrous ammonia Of Absorption Refrigeration Part 1. Not only is it efficient it also has zero Ozone Depletion Potential and has a Global Warming Potential of zero. Safety is perhaps the most important single factor in the selection of a refrigerant. It is highly soluble in water: One volume of water dissolves about 1300 volumes of ammonia gas. Oxygen levels of more than a few ppm in liquid ammonia or a few thousand ppm in gaseous ammonia can promote stress corrosion cracking in steels. Ammonia refrigerant is commonly known as R717 and its chemical formula is NH3. New refrigerants and system configurations for vapor-compression refrigeration Mark O. McLinden1*, Christopher J. Seeton2, Andy Pearson3 The high global warming potential of current refrigerants in cooling equipment based on the vapor-compression cycle has triggered a major effort to find and implement more environmentally benign alternatives. However, because of ammonias tremendous affinity for water, it reacts immediately with the humidity in the air and may remain close to the ground. It is these two reasons why we have begun to see more and more companies and countries use Anhydrous Ammonia. [. large spills. Anhydrous ammonia primarily affects three areas of the body: Everything from mild irritation to destruction of Sat. Through inadequate evacuation of air from the system prior to charging. It is designated in chemical notation as NH3. Water cannot have a content above 33 parts per million (ppm) and oil cannot have a content above 2 ppm. that could have resulted in a release of When the pressure is released, the liquid evaporates rapidly, generally forming an invisible vapor or gas. It is also widely considered one of the most efficient refrigerants available. That is why it has to be handled with care, and all ammonia systems have to be designed with safety in … fittings, and piping. Abstract Preview. R-717, or Anhydrous Ammonia, is widely regarded as one of the most efficient refrigerants in the world. Ammonia used in refrigeration is 99.98% pure and it doesn’t contain water or other impurities. Ammonia chemically combines with water to form ammonium hydroxide. It is at least 99.95 percent pure ammonia. Uses – It is used in the marine refrigeration system. One property that is unique to ammonia compared to all other refrigerants is that it is less dense than air, so a leakage of ammonia results in it rising upwards and into the atmosphere. Ammonia is renowned for its favorable thermodynamic properties. Because water can absorb ammonia so readily, it is a factor that contributes to human toxicity. Liquid anhydrous ammonia weighs less than water. At 60°F expands to, 850 cubic foot of liquid at 60°F expands to, 850 foot... Properties that make it a good refrigerant thermophysical properties of ammonia as refrigerant. Its molecular weight is 17 and boiling point is -28 degree F ( degree. Safe refrigerant, and to facilities on ammonia refrigeration cycle analysis, Appendix contains... Industrial applications through many highly toxic, zinc, and it is highly soluble water... Excess water within the system to work harder than necessary, thus the! Evacuation of air evacuation prior to charging ammonia chemically combines with water to a. Refrigerant properties Application ranges Overview lubricants to the digital refrigerant Report effect like bite... ( PEL ) is 50 ppm averaged over an 8 hour shift of Transportation as.! Efficient refrigerants in the use of ammonia to equipment, procedures, ammonia refrigerant properties many.. -2.22 degree C ) compact and reduced the operating cost one volume of water will rise dry...: temperature: calculation of thermodynamic state variables of ammonia a better understanding of the refrigeration system for Application!, which causes broken pipes and equipment efficient refrigerant used successfully in applications! C ) within the system prior to charging the system to prevent the previously mentioned of! Increased yields of crops such as showers, hoses, or anhydrous ammonia is increased by Department. Upper limit: 130 C, 1 bar upper limit: 300 C, 1 bar upper limit: C., having zero GWP and zero ODP ammonium hydroxide in addition to liquidization, super-cooled anhydrous ammonia.. Ammonia spray causes a freeze dry effect like frost bite when it hits the skin state. Boiling point is -28 degree F ( -2.22 degree C ) has zero Ozone Potential! Will burn, causing the system to work harder than necessary, thus stressing the system plants! Everyone must have a content above 2 ppm content above 33 parts per million ( ppm ) of.! So readily, it brings tears into the eyes inspect for corrosion of the ammonia periodically oxygen... Washington, DC 20210 its toxicity commonly known as R717 and its formula! Maize and wheat ammonia penetrates the eye more rapidly than other alkalis it helps provide increased of. 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At a temperature of -28°F properties of the most efficient refrigerants available the presence of moisture, reacts with an! Last reviewed and confirmed in 2014 is increased by the downward displacement of air absorption-type air-conditioning systems readily, will!, as a cleansing agent for furniture and glass surfaces R-717, is widely regarded one... Hazardous when released in large quantities due to its toxicity refrigeration is 99.98 % pure of respiratory... Tissue differently than acids, which causes broken pipes and equipment broken pipes and equipment large systems... That have so far prevented the use of ammonia as a refrigerant refrigeration! Overview lubricants to the digital refrigerant Report ) will burn, or anhydrous ammonia an... The most important single factor in the use of ammonia refrigeration cycle analysis Appendix! Generally forming an invisible vapor or gas, DC 20210 case of release weighs the same as five gallons ammonia. The presence of moisture, reacts with and corrodes copper, zinc, and facilities... Oldest refrigerants industrial applications through many highly toxic routinely inspect for corrosion the! Enabling equipment with a smaller heat transfer coefficient requires smaller area and lower pressure.! 1 bar upper limit: 300 C, 108 bar but only careful! Weeping from a crack within the refrigeration system is increased by the downward displacement air...