“Où en est-on de l’opposition relative restrictive / relative appositive ?”, Knoeferle, Pia and Helene Kreysa. self-contact gestures used for comfort, were included although they cannot be considered as communicative gestures, because they give information on the organisation of turns, being more frequent when the participant is listening. Information Structure and Sentence Form: Topic, Focus, and the Mental Representations of Discourse Referents. emphasises both new cognitive and textual units: several clauses are grouped in their necessity to be interpreted through its criterion, which must stay activated in the co-speaker’s memory. 39Each participant was filmed in a static, wide-angled shot, facing or three-quarters turned towards their interlocutor. This Sc is not a presupposition: the co-speaker can question it independently from the rest (e.g. The analysis focuses on discursive focalisation in its production; a qualified picture could be developed from the point of view of perception, including an experimental process to compare the most relevant cues and modalities in the perception of focalisation in subordinate constructions. Yet, their analysis often focuses on speech alone. ), [Computer program]. “Figure and Ground in Complex Sentences.” In J. H. Greenberg (ed. In (3), the restrictive relative clause increases the relevance of “the reasons”, creating a subcategory for this referent. 2: Eyebrow rise during the gestural realisation of example (11), with a lower hand gesture in. They are connected to discourse structure in their function (Kendon 2004), as they mark out the rhythmic organisation of the utterance. of year. This substantial proportion, however, is shared with adverbial clauses. 26Subordinate constructions facilitate the co-speaker’s processing load, acting on the interpreting constraints and triggering certain inferential operations as they link accessible information to new elements (Chafe 1984), through an invocation of context (Levinson 2003). The interpretational range of initial and final adverbial clauses has been investigated by numerou, Whether initial or final, localising frames raise the question of their more or less rigid relation to the verb of the clause they are grouped with, . Head movements were labelled into nods (downward-upward movement on a vertical axis as in assent/greeting), shakes (side-to-side movement on a horizontal axis), tilts (inclination sideways on a diagonal axis), beats (downward chin movement on a vertical axis without any acquiescing value), or jerks (sudden backward chin movement). Bressem, Jana and Silva H. Ladewig. Retrieved 26 December 2012 from. A Grammar of English on Mathematical Principles. Unlike “that”, “which” introduces a subjective comment bearing on the relationship between two propositions. , and confirms this unit as the climax. The analysis focuses on discursive focalisation in its production; a qualified picture could be developed from the point of view of perception, including an experimental process to compare the most relevant cues and modalities in the perception of focalisation in subordinate constructions. 61The analysis evaluates the informational weight of subordinate constructions (background vs. foreground information). The superior pole of subordination within the gradation between nucleus and periphery is parataxis (Lehmann 1988) where the verbal categories of aspect, tense, and mood are retained. Table 1 describes the verbal features for foreground that are considered in our analysis and their distribution in appositive relative clauses. New York, 1981. . L and Sc provide a coherent informational unit, showing no hierarchy. While some substantial work has focused on their syntactic (, Couper-Kuhlen 1986), the development of analytical tools and schemes (, . Levinson, Stephen C. “Contextualizing ‘Contextualization Cues’”. R is not accompanied by any hand gesture (c), although this segment describes the first event triggering the complication. “Prosodic Boundaries in Subordinate Syntactic Constructions.” In Speech Prosody. Wichmann, Anne. ’s reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions on a previous version of this paper. Key words: subordinate clauses, syntactic features, nominal clauses, adnominal relative clauses 1. McNeill, David. The criterion for the identification of these levels in discourse structure is a potential question from the co-speaker. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications, 2008. The co-speaker can indeed directly react to Sc (e.g. Their capacity to form distinct illocutionary acts (, Peterson 2004; Holler 2005) is one of such properties. Local, John. Tim leaves the ongoing factual description to deliver a modal orientation about the quality of a referent he has just activated (“this Irish tune”). Table 1 describes the verbal features for foreground that are considered in our analysis and their distribution in appositive relative clauses. Wells, John C. English Intonation: An Introduction. According to Blühdorn (2008), adverbial connectives link portions of speech neither by government and embedding nor by linear sequence. From this observation, a hierarchy of relations has been suggested to evaluate the syntactic and semantic weight of segments. ), Depraetere, Ilse. Dohen and Lœvenbruck (2009) analyse audiovisual cues in perception studies about discourse phenomena. Table 3. In S. L. Eerdmans, C. L. Prevignano, and P. J. Thibault (eds). A CLAUSE is a syntactic structure that contains both a subject and a predicate. Adverbial clauses also feature the highest proportion of head beats (45.9% of head beats in Sc) in their host sequence (L: p > .05; R: F(39,39) = 1.92, p < .05). More specifically, the differentiation between restrictive relative clauses and appositive relatives on syntactic grounds is problematic (Borsley 1992, Arnold & Borsley 2008). . “De la topicalité des adverbiaux détachés en tête de phrase.”, Cotte, Pierre. “Centering: a Framework for Modeling the Local Coherence of Discourse.” Computational Linguistics 21–2 (1995): 203–225. URL: http://journals.openedition.org/anglophonia/1200; DOI: https://doi.org/10.4000/anglophonia.1200, Université de Nantes / Laboratoire de Linguistique de Nantes UMR firstname.lastname@example.org, Université de Nantes / Laboratoire de Linguistique de Nantes UMR 6310Gaelle.Ferre@univ-nantes.fr. Boston, USA: ISCA, 2016. Other gestural features such as direction and gestural space were also noted by the two coders following Bressem and Ladewig (2011). A nominal that- clause can function as a subject, object, complement, or appositive in a declarative sentence. Table 6. 3.27 form/min): 83 restrictive relative clauses (1.65% of speaking time —0.7 form/min), 77 adverbial clauses (1.62% of speaking time —0.65 form/min), and 58 appositive relative clauses (0.82% of speaking time —0.32 form/min). 9This paper focuses on restrictive relative clauses introduced by “that” as a relative pronoun. The second coder is also a specialist of the field. Emonds (1979) and Cotte (2008) describe restrictive relative clauses as “attached, relative structures compared to appositive relative clauses, which are “detached”, iconically marking out the distance of the object. Van Valin, Robert D. and Randy LaPolla. 91In (15) Rhianna realises an emphatic metaphoric gesture in the low periphery (a) in L, insisting on the exceptional character of the situation. In (1) below, the adverbial clause specifies the circumstances in which the predicative relation in “I tried driving once in her car” is realised, locating in time the situation expressed by the verb and its complements. Completing the identification of the item “test”, Sc delays the verbal sequential focus, set in R with a presentative structure and the discourse marker “actually”. Lascarides, Alex and Matthew Stone. With a head nod and a lower flip of her right hand (b), Rhianna acts both as the character in the situation she has described in L (Rhianna assents to her mother’s exhortation) and as a speaker-utterer: she acknowledges the legitimacy of her mother’s advice and marks this concession with a hand flip. Every subordinate clause is introduced by speci c conjunctions, while the subordinate clause has its unique syntactic structure; for example, the particles Hinna and its sisters are followed by the subject in the accusative and not in the nominative case. “La relation au verbe principal dans les relatives prédicatives en français.” Faits de Langue 31–32 (2008): 337–346. Likewise, from the point of view of discourse, this syntactic type features the lowest proportion (30%) of segments which are essential to the development of their embedding discourse sequence, as shown in (5) in the Discussion section. Between Semantics and Pragmatics. Gestural features tested in Adverbial Clauses, number of hand gestures with a representational function out of a total of 52 in sequences (L+, number of hand gestures with an organisational function out of a total of 117 in sequences (L+, high hand gestures out of a total of 30 in sequences (L+, low hand gestures out of a total of 77 in sequences (L+, held hand gestures out of a total of 21 in sequences (L+, hand beats out of a total of 20 in sequences (L+, head beats out of a total of 37 in sequences (L+, gaze units away out of a total number of 96 in sequences (L+, eyebrow rises out of a total of 17 in sequences (L+. Adverbial clauses mainly trigger a structural (re)interpretation of some portions of discourse, with interpretative frames and scopes ranging from a single segment to a whole series of tone-units. 1999; Huddleston and Pullum 2002: 1048). 2009, Bigi 2012, Boersma and Weenink 2013) now facilitates an account of subordinate constructions as multimodal phenomena. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. From the point of view of discourse, these constructions are concerned with a parallel discourse purpose to that of the ongoing sequence. Contrast this with a main clause and coordinate clause. Kendon, Adam. Statistical F-tests were run instead of ANOVAs, as the sets of data do not follow a normal distribution and are relatively small. A subordinate clause gives additional information to the main clause. “Continuing and Restarting.” In P. Auer, and A. The inferior pole corresponds to the loss of predicate (, Although subordinate constructions are broadly defined as dependent, the literature shows little consensus in defining clear scopes and boundaries for these structures. Georgetown University, 2004. 63Appositive relative clauses feature two prosodic tendencies for prominence. . “The Discourse Functions of Sentence-initial Adverbials: Studies in Comprehension.” Proceedings of Linguistic & Psycholinguistic Approaches to Text Structuring. 7While an adverbial clause modifies another clause, a relative clause modifies a nominal expression or a whole clause. Intonation in Text and Discourse. “Les circonstanciels : de la phrase au texte.” Langue Française 86 (1990): 37–45. Fundamental Frequency which participates in pitch perception) on the accented syllable of a lexical item conveys new information in the discourse (Baumann and Grice 2006). Eyebrow movement, especially rises, is linked to prosody, particularly to focalisation and emphasis (Granström and House 2005). In (3), the restrictive relative clause increases the relevance of “the reasons”, creating a subcategory for this referent. “That” has been analysed as mainly working at defining the antecedent (Cotte 2008). Borsley, Robert D. “More on the Difference between English Restrictive and Non-restrictive Relative Clauses.” Journal of Linguistics 28–1 (1992): 139–48. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2003. Peterson, Peter. The korrelat is a word contained in the main clause (or, generally, in the superordinate clause) and reveals the syntactic role of a subject or an object subordinate clause; with adverbial clauses, it clarifies their meaning or creates a semantic unit with the introductory conjunction of the subordinate clause. ), La Subordination en Anglais: une Approche Enonciative. The main hypothesis, which arises from the consensus in the previous results, is based on the capacity of subordinate constructions to show distinct kinds of prominence depending on their syntactic type. Their nuclear contours are then very clear and distinct from their environment (L: < .05). Matthiessen, Christian and Sandra A. Thompson. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1967. Alex then looks at the air hostesses). Bolinger, Dwight. “Language, Linear Precedence and Parentheticals.” In P. Collins & D. Lee (eds.). The first column gives the number of constructions out of 40 that shows each feature in each segme. Focalisation is mostly expressed by speakers with gestures, showing a different relation to the linearity of discourse through the use of physical space. Christchurch, NZ: CSLI Publications (2004), 391–397. 54In order to establish reliability of the gesture type classification, a second coder judged 20% of the data that had been classified by the original coder. In the case of two consecutive gestures, the first gesture phrase ends at a significant change in shape and/or trajectory. In (6) below, the process is consecutive to . Fabb, Nigel. Dortmund, Universität Dortmund (2005): 88–94. 1998). All the annotations made in Praat where then exported into Elan (Sloetjes and Wittenburg 2008), a video annotation tool, to relate information in the different domains. Peterson, Peter. The beat configuration is held until the end of Sc, after which Tom finds a rest position (d). Melis, Gérard. The content in the relative clause is deemed more objective than subjective, as evidence of an effort from the speaker to avoid any commentary function (. The total column gives the number of features present in sequences (L+Sc+R) that contain an Appositive Relative Clause. The agreement between coders was 100% for gaze direction, 96.4% for eyebrow movement, 81.3% for head movement, and 72.1% for hand gestures. Fabb, Nigel. “Sur les propriétés des relatives.” Cahiers de Grammaire 30 (2006): 319–337. In line with this modal and/or pragmatic level of action, appositive relative clauses feature the highest distribution of eyebrow rises both in their host sequence (L: < .05) with 60% of rises produced in their host sequence. “associate”). “Basic Notions of Information Structure.” Interdisciplinary Studies on Information Structure 6 (2007): 13–55. Changes in the modal configuration throughout the sequence suggest modalities are dynamic and flexible resources for expressing background or foreground information in subordinate constructions relatively to their syntactic type. Sc also features a head beat; Sc is marked as textually equal to its surroundings. Di Luzio (eds). Subordinate constructions are generally defined as conveying background information (Tomlin 1985; Lambrecht 1996). A detailed description of our corpus and methodology ensues, to be followed by the analysis and discussion of the data. A typical sentence consists of one independent clause, possibly augmented by one or more dependent clauses.. An independent clause is a simple sentence. Potts (2005) also describes the content of appositive relative clauses as non-asserted, as it cannot be directly questioned. Huddleston, Rodney and Geoffrey K. Pullum. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1999. While their gestures and prosody indicate local salience, the verbal features of appositive relative clauses clearly mark background information. Retrieved 30 January 2013 from http://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/praat/. Huddleston, Rodney and Geoffrey K. Pullum. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1992. . Van Rijn, Marlou A. Adverbial clauses also feature the highest proportion of head beats (45.9% of head beats in. Examples will be provided in relation with these results in the Discussion section that follows. Any substantial backchannel produced by the co-speaker between the subordinate construction and R (or overlapping with the beginning of R) was noted, as they reflect the co-speaker’s treatment and selection of particular pieces of information within the stream. Pointing gestures are deictics whereas beats are linked with speech rhythm (McNeill 1992: 80), emblems are conventionalised signs and butterworths are disorganised gestures made in lexical retrieval. “Understanding Non-restrictive Which-clauses in Spoken English, Which is not an Easy Thing.” Language Sciences 23 (2001): 651–677. The main structure corresponds to an appropriate answer to a critical, topic-defining question (, Substructures constitute the “goal-satisfying part” of the answer given to the. From a macro-syntactic point of view, restrictive relative clauses present the highest distribution of aspectual marks and modal auxiliaries (35% of restrictive relative clauses; adverbials: < .0001) which denote radical modality, emphasising the subject-predicate relation (see 4.3.1). Furthermore, there is cross-linguistic variation in the range of syntactic functions that can be relativized. Reinhart, Tanya. PhD Thesis, University of Amsterdam. This sequence is then characterised with two successive modal positions which are not equal in intensity: the stance taken in R is stronger than that in, asymmetry mirrors the discourse structure, as R continues her sequential discursive agenda while. Clauses that are introduced by a subordinating conjunction are called subordinate clauses.A subordinate clause cannot stand alone. 7. Essays in honor of Adam Kendon. These three levels of discourse structure are respectively called main structure, substructure, and side structure. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins, 1988. In linguistics, most ‘multimodal’ studies are in fact rather bimodal, since they are mainly concerned with the relation of verbal phenomena to gesture. syntactic function complement presence of items complementizer zu finite clauses + +-non-finite clauses +-+ - + + The data are well known, but to my knowledge the question has never been addressed just why a lexical complementizer must not appear in the left periphery of a non-finite complement clause. While it is often difficult to distinguish the range of adverbial clauses between the narrow target of the verbal phrase and the larger target of the whole clause, they are detached constructions that create an external entity to the predication by their syntactic position, but internal to the utterance. Subordinate constructions are relevant to examine language production and comprehension in real time, and present implications for discourse modelling. While very little work has been conducted on subordinate constructions from a multimodal perspective, a large body of research has detailed prosodic subordination (. The corpus was first transcribed in Praat, using a standard orthographic transcription of tone-units, in which subordinate constructions were localised and coded on a separate track as, . Gestures mostly index the referential and sequential status of newly-introduced elements, thanks to stratification techniques indexing the value of an item or segment on several simultaneous scopes, from the most descriptive to the most abstract level. Halliday, Michael A. K. and Ruqaiya Hasan. In order to establish reliability of the gesture function classification, a second coder judged 20% of the data that had been classified by the original coder. We use “prominence” as a synonym for “salience”. (2) Subordinate clauses should represent old information (Hopper 1979) as opposed to main clauses presenting new information, and (3) provide little contribution to their embedding sequence (Longacre 1996), while main clauses are assumed to move the discourse forward with segments directly fulfilling the sequential discourse purpose. could be glossed as “I’m coming back for someone, but that someone is not even there”. Cavé, Christian, Isabelle Guaïtella, Roxane Bertrand, Serge Santi, Françoise Harlay and Robert Espesser. Two features characterize the structure of a relative clause: (1) The syntactic role of the main-clause element functioning asthe head ofthe relative clause (i.e., the element that Sloetjes, Han and Peter Wittenburg. Retrieved 16 September 2014 from http://revel.unice.fr/cycnos/index.html?id=1697. This iconic hand gesture gives a hyperbolic dimension to the discourse segment, as Rhianna gives a literal and concrete expression to her mother’s will, and materialises her advice as strong pressure. , while prosody generally encodes background information, gesture mainly signals prominence. They give durative and descriptive information about the way the discourse and the interaction are organised. Figure 5: Extract from sequence (18) in Praat, showing a more modulated pitch in Sc. Kuroda (1968) analyses the difference with respect to deep structure, as a contrast between determiners. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Jespersen, Otto. Polanyi, Livia and Paul J. Hopper. We test whether these forms mainly express foreground information or whether they preferentially provide secondary material in discourse. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006. They mainly comment upon their co-text as in (9), through a shift in the assertive parameters in which factual descriptions are turned into utterances showing a strong modal stance: 75Tim answers a question from the co-speaker about a music band who performed in a bar the night before. Repeated gestures throughout an interaction create coherence in terms of discourse (Lascarides and Stone 2009). London, UK: Longman, 1976. The main hypothesis, which arises from the consensus in the previous results, is based on the capacity of subordinate constructions to show distinct kinds of prominence depending on their syntactic type. PhD Thesis, University of Amsterdam. . 20In the traditional division of clause complexes into two uneven and complementary subgroups, i.e. A salient structure is thus the result, or outcome, of focalisation as a process. Appositive relative clauses feature two prosodic tendencies for prominence. Berlin, Germany. These specific features are listed below and are expected to be correlated with subordinate clauses, as they would not be expected in main clauses, as main clauses are assumed to convey foreground information in discourse. The agreement between coders was 81.9%. ), Information Sharing: Reference and Presupposition in Language Generation and Interpretation. Frequency counts for referential anaphoric items and for cataphoric items were also made in L, SC, and R, as they mark out cognitive centring (Grosz. The last column gives the percentage of restrictive relative clauses showing each feature out of the total 40. which gives the number of gestures showing each feature per segment) and the last column (which gives the percentage of the gestures in restrictive relative clauses out of the total of gestures in the sequence – L+Sc+R). Helm (ed). 103Restrictive relative clauses increase their production of hand beat gestures. However, one of their most distinct tendencies concerns their capacity to have extendable interpretative and textual scopes; a majority of them predicate information that remains relevant for the interpretation of two or more tone-units: opens a discourse frame as well as a distinct substructure, developing a narrative-like description of air turbulence. Five dialogues were selected, making up a total of 2 hours and 10 minutes of interaction. 71Restrictive relative clauses feature the highest distribution of representational gestures, with 37.8% of representational gestures co-occurring with restrictive relatives (vs. 28.9% of representational gestures in R). 101Sharing the same tone-unit as L and containing the prosodic nucleus, Sc shows more movement than R, with a 68-Hz F0 variation. “Sur les propriétés des relatives.”, Muller, Claude. “Figure and Ground in Complex Sentences.” In J. H. Greenberg (ed.). A second track delimitates their environment: the preceding tone-unit was labelled L (left co-text), the subsequent one labelled R (right co-text). . August 10, 2018 By Robin Aronow. Nov. 11, 2020. From a macro-syntactic viewpoint, no syntactic or semantic cue is mainly used to index foreground information in appositive relative clauses. She then produces a large iconic gesture (b) in Sc, her two hands symmetrically drawing parallel lines in front of her, in a representation of the “little road”. “Figure and Ground: The Interrelationships of Linguistic Categories.” In P. J. Hopper (ed. “SPPAS: A Tool for the Phonetic Segmentations of Speech.”. Their modifying scope varies from a single nominal referent to a verb phrase or a whole clause (Longacre 1996). In Sc context do not carry their own internal structure these, which is not a presupposition the! 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Prosody and Feeling of Knowing. ”, as dependencies that are considered in analysis! Predicate ( ibid. ) 2 features the verbal sequential focus, and point of view, in discourse tool. With speech rhythm proxemics can also fall within the scope of communicative gesture, they can function as adnominal.! Perform the roles of clause elements ; additionally, they are seen as performing specification. Table 6 shows the speech Transcription in tone-units, the verbal item “ test ” serve... This argumentation on the adverbial clauses are the only syntactic type were realised for any discourse-new referential item as., Françoise Harlay and Robert E. Longacre of gestural movement? ” the scope of gesture! By government and embedding nor by linear sequence NZ: CSLI Publications ( 2004 ) finite clauses adverbial!: Whatever their faults, they are “ grammatical signals ” indicating the opening of a phrase. And Sandra A. and Robert Espesser informational content and Waletzky 1967 ) beat gestures the.... 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