The fine ore powder is mixed with water and oil, after which air is blown into the mixture, usually from below. 2. Prevents sodium reacting with chlorine forming NaCl. The foil is used in cooking; packaging and for milk bottle tops. On this page you can read or download chemistry klb notes on metals form 4 in PDF format. The impurities are mainly iron,sulphur and traces of gold and silver. Zinc is amphoteric and dissolves in hot alkalis to give the zincate ion and hydrogen gas. This process involves formation of an oil froth onto which the ore floats hence the name froth formation . Cu reacts with chlorine in presence of heat to form green copper (II) chloride. Calculate the mass of sodium produced in kg (Na = 23; 1F = 96500 C), For the same quantity of electricity as in (c) above ; calculate the volume of the gaseous product produced in the cell at 15. Limestone and silica SiO2 are added and the mixture heated in the absence of air. Galvanization of iron sheets to prevent corrosion and rusting. Summary Summary ÷ molar volume × molar volume × molar mass . In this lesson we will discuss extraction of Iron by reduction. Depend on position of the metal in the reactivity series. The iron reduces hot concentrated H 2 SO 4 to sulphur (IV) oxide and it is itself oxidized to iron (III) sulphate. The oxide ore is ground and treated under pressure/ dissolved in hot aqueous sodium hydroxide. Is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity with low melting point hence used; In nuclear reactors to conduct away heat. It's filtered and the purified ore is crystallized ore is crystallized and the crystallized out of the filtrate. These earthy impurities form molten slag whose main component is calcium silicate . It however reacts with steam liberating hydrogen gas and forming tri-iron tetroxide. The following are some of the uses of sodium, Aluminium is usually extracted from bauxite The ore is first dissolved in hot aqueous sodium hydroxide where the iron impurities precipitate as iron(III)hydroxide The precipitate is filtered as The limestone undergoes decomposition to give calcium oxide and liberate carbon (IV) oxide; The calcium oxide reacts with silica in form of SiO. Hence, it is important to know what non-metals and metals are and how to distinguish them. (Courtesy of You Tube). One can make an endless list of the compounds of the metals. The calcium oxide will be used in the removal of the main ore impurity/ silicates/ silica in the form of silicon (IV) oxide. For Best results INSTALL Adobe Flash Player Version 16 to play the interactive content in your computer. Steel factory to use zinc in galvanization. Coke burns in the blast at the bottom of the furnace. The copper metal from reduction in step 6 is impure and is thus purified by electrolysis. 2. The Carbon(II) Oxide formed after calcium carbonate decomposes is reduced by the coke to produce more carbon(II) Oxide which reduces more of the Iron Ore. Chemistry Notes Form 4 PDF Download Free! Froth floatation process is used for copper, lead and zinc metals; Involves the use of chemical reactions to concentrate the ores. The separated PbS is then dried and broken into smaller pieces, then subjected to reduction; The crushed and concentrated ore is roasted in a furnace to convert it to lead (II) oxide; During roasting some of the lead (II) sulphide is converted to lead (II) sulphate; Any lead sulphate formed is converted to lead silicate by silicon (IV) oxide; Additionally the lead (II) sulphate may further react with lead sulphide to form lead metal; The lead oxide obtained is mixed with coke, limestone and silica and some scrap iron; The mixture is fed into the top of the Imperial smelting furnace (ISF); where it is melted using hot air blasts introduced near the bottom of the furnace; The lead (II) oxide is reduced to lead by the coke. Consequently the carbon anode should be replaced from time to time. The molten alumina mixed with bauxite is then electrolysed in a steel cell lined with carbon graphite as the cathode. chemistry form four full notes Admin Tuesday, April 17, 2018 GET NOTES AND MATERIALS VIA WHATSAPP FOR PAYING A LIITLE AMOUNT OF MONEY; CONTACT US NOW : 0759 146185 OR 0622 105 865 The main pollutants are carbon( IV) Oxide and sulphur (IV) Oxide. Sodium is obtained by the electrolysis of fused sodium chloride in the electrolytic cell. Finely divided copper burns with a blue flame . Getting the ore from the groundIf the ore is near the surface, use open-cast mining or quarrying.If it is deeper into the earth's crust, use deep mining.2. CaCO3(s) The earthy impurities in the ore (mainly silica) react with calcium oxide from decomposition of limestone to form calcium silicate. The common alloys with some of their uses are given in the table below. There are two major methods of obtaining the metals from the use.a.) The resultant carbon (II) oxide and coke are the reducing agents in the furnace, at about 1400 o C. They reduce the oxide to the metal; which is liberated in vapour form. Chlorine gas is evolved as a by product and collected separately. Usually it is channeled to a contact process plant for the manufacture of sulphuric acid. State the properties of sodium metal that makes it possible for it to be collected as shown in the diagram. The following is a summary of the way metals can be obtained from their concentrated ores depending on their position in the electrochemical series. Non-metals combine with hydrogen to form many hydrides. Get free Kenyan K.C.P.E, K.C.S.E and Campus and College exam papers and revision materials. Crush the ore and then add dilute nitric or hydrochloric or sulphuric acid to dissolve the ore. Divide filtrate into 2 different test tubes. Click to play the video and observe what happens carefully. The resultant carbon (IV) oxide produced in reaction (i) above further reduces any remaining lead (II) oxide; The scrap iron is added so as to react with any lead sulphide that may be present. (Courtesy of You Tube). Alternatively it can be scrubbed off to prevent pollution of the environment. Since the metal rod is dipped into a solution of its ions, the impure lead solid undergoes oxidation, losing electrons to form lead (II) ions, Pb. Group 1 and 2 metals together with Al are themselves such powerful reducing agents that their oxides cannot be reduced by chemical reducing agents. Outflow pipes from metal processing plants directly pour their waste into rivers and lakes. The apparatus for the preparation of AlCl. Download Chemistry Form 4 Notes PDF to Print or Offline Reading, With little NH4OH:-Zn2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) → Zn(OH)2(s) (White ppt), In excess:Zn(OH)2(aq) + 4NH3(aq) → [Zn(NH)4]2+(aq) (Colourless solution) + 2OH-(aq). Making Aluminium foils due to its high malleability. Is done by electrolysis or reduction of its oxide using carbon. manganese. The major noise pollution from industries are from the vehicle operations within Sulphur (IV) oxide is a major pollutant from metal industries Land pollution resulting from metal extraction is due to chemical waste disposal and Order this CD Today to Experience the Full Multimedia State of the Art Technology, Purchase Online and have the CD sent to your nearest Parcel Service. The main ore of iron are; Reduction of Iron( III) Oxide is carried out in a blast furnace. Explain what takes place in the roasting furnace. Comment. Test the link below to find out if you have Adobe Flash in your computer. Click to play the following video to observe the process of froth floatation. Its not bristle like cast iron and can be welded and shaped by hammering (when hot) it malleable and ductile. The With concentrated HCl the rate of reaction is increased. This reaction takes place at the upper part of the furnace at temperature about 600 - 7000c, The molten slag is less dense and floats on top of molten iron preventing re-oxidation of the iron to iron III oxide by the hot air in the furnace. Reduction: Heating of oxides of metals to turn them into metal is known as Reduction. Bubbles of the air forms froth, resulting to concentration of the ore. For example, methane ammonia, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen sulphide are the covalent compounds. The Ore is crushed and heated to remove water and other impurities with low melting point leaving behind 30 - 90% Iron ( III) oxide. A froth rich in mineral is formed at the top while impurities sink at the bottom. Study it and answer the questions that follow: Explain why in this process the sodium chloride is mixed with calcium chloride. ), electrical materials (copper) 22.2.4 Pollution effect of the industrial production of metals on the environment. Utilizes the difference in density between the minerals and the unwanted materials. Making parts of airplanes, railway, trucks, buses, tankers, furniture, and car e.t.c. We additionally provide variant types and as well as type of the books to browse. Distribution: - Canada, USA, Zambia, and Tanzania. (3 marks), Write equations for the reactions at the anode and cathode. (2 marks), calculate the time taken for a current of 10 amperes to deposit 32kg of pure copper. The It is directly fed into a contact process plant or scrubbed using calcium hydroxide forming calcium sulphite; The molten lead obtained in this process contains impurities such as gold, silver, copper, arsenic, tin and sulphur; The impure lead is refined by electrolysis. melt Al2O3 is then electrolyzed in a steel tank as shown below: The following video clip shows how the electrolysis takes place. Calcium chloride is added to sodium chloride to lower the melting point of Chemistry Form 4 Notes Topic Metals Author: download.truyenyy.com-2020-11-24T00:00:00+00:01 Subject: Chemistry Form 4 Notes Topic Metals Keywords: chemistry, form, 4, notes, topic, metals Created Date: 11/24/2020 2:57:07 PM The total reserves of the ore in the country are estimated around 60 crore tonnes. Iron reacts with dilute nitric (V) acid to form nitrogen (IV) oxide and ammonia which then forms ammonium nitrate. It is then mixed with water and a suitable oil detergent e.g pine or eucalyptus; The mixture is then agitated by blowing compressed air through it; Small air bubbles attach to the oiled ore particles; which are thenn buoyed up and carried to the surface where they float. Join our whatsapp group for latest updates, Support and Movement in Plants and Animals - Biology Form 4 Topical Revision Questions and Answers, Radioactivity - Chemistry Form 4 Topical Revisions Questions and Answers, Organic Chemistry 2 - Chemistry Form 4 Topical Revision Questions and Answers, Metals - Chemistry Form 4 Topical Revision Questions and Answers, Electrochemistry - Chemistry Form 4 Topical Revision Questions and Answers, Aluminium, copper, manganese and magnesium, - Refers to iron just after it has been produced in the blast furnace. Temperatures at the hearth (bottom of the furnace) is maintained at approx. As the iron drops / falls down the furnace, it melts as it passes through the melting zone/ molten zone (1500. Being a powerful oxidizing agent, it simply thickens the oxide layer thereby preventing further reaction. This method is used when the percentage of mineral is used when the percentage of mineral in the ore is too small. Usually, salty water attacks the oxide film allowing the aluminium to corrode and for this reason, ordinary aluminium is not used for marine purposes . The slag floats on the surface of the liquid iron produced. Air that has been preheated to about 700 o C is blown/ fed into the base of the blast furnace through small pipes called tuyers. These gaseous products lead to serious air pollution. Read Free Chemistry Form 4 Notes Topic Metals Chemistry Form 4 Notes Topic Metals Right here, we have countless book chemistry form 4 notes topic metals and collections to check out. The entire group 1 metal can react with oxygen to form metal oxide. Concentrated nitric (V) cid renders the iron unreactive. If you don't see any interesting for you, use our search form on bottom ↓ . The ore is crushed and then dilute nitric or hydrochloric or sulphuric acid added to dissolve the ore. 3. Coke -Carbon made from coal. The coke burns in the hot compressed air to form carbon( IV) oxide gas. The solution of Zinc in molten lead is cooled further and the Zinc collects on the surface from where it is run off. Chief impurities are small quantities of silica and iron (III) oxide. The reaction temperatures is about 1600 o C and the product is Carbon (IV) oxide gas. The ionic bonding is only between metals and non-metals. If you don't see any interesting for you, use our search form on bottom ↓ . Write an equation for the reaction at the cathode. During electrolysis, fused sodium chloride dissociates according to the equation; Molten sodium is lighter than fused sodium chloride and floats on the surface where it overflows into a separate container/sodium reservoir. This mixture is then filtered, during which iron (III) oxide remain as residue of red mud while a filterate of sodium aluminate and sodium silicate is collected. The impure copper is refined by electrolysis. The sulphur (IV) oxide escapes into the atmosphere and is the major pollutant in this process. Approximately three-quarters of all known chemical elements are metals. The Carbon (IV) oxide is reduced by coke to form Carbon (II) Oxide. Cations in the electrolyte are Pb 2+ and H + but Pb 2+ are preferentially discharged due to their easy tendency to undergo reduction. Zinc can be purified by further distillation. Why is the anode made of graphite and not steel? Reduction by carbonb.) FeSiO3, which constitutes the slag.The slag separates itself from the copper (I) Sulphide. Warm dilute nitric (V) acid gives iron (II) nitrate. Study it and answer the questions that follow. If you desire to humorous books, lots of novels, tale, jokes, and more fictions collections are with launched, from best seller to one of the most current released. At the furnace temperatures zinc exists in vapour form, and leaves at the top of the furnace. Hot unreacted/waste gases leave at the top of the furnace. In Kenya , Zinc blende is found at Kaloleni near Mombasa. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I … Chemical leaching the crushed ore is first dissolved in a chemical where only the ore can dissolve. Impurities in the iron are removed by oxidation. Minerals (mineral) are usually mined with several impurities which lower the concentration of the metal per given mass or volume. Chemical concentration can also be done by leaching. The most commonly used ore is copper pyrites, which is roasted in air to remove some of the sulphur. Zinc exist as vapour form at the furnace temperature and leaves at the top of the furnace. biology ,chemistry, physics, english, kiswahili, history, geography, history, comp, business, mathematics, cre , ire (i) Extraction of Metals of Least Reactivity: Mercury and copper, which belong to the least reactivity series, are often found in the form of their sulphide ores. This may lead to formation of acid rain. An ore is any naturally-occurring source of a metal that you can economically extract the metal from. The melt is then electrolysed in a steel tank lined with graphite cathode & graphite rods dipped in the electrolyte serve as the anode.The graphite lining is an inert electrode which prevents alloy formation.During electrolysis aluminum is deposited at the cathode and oxygen is given off at the anode. The complex ions formed are water soluble, and can be separated by filtration, leaving the unwanted materials in the residue. This reaction is exothermic, producing a lot of heat in the blast furnace. - Making iron nails; horse shoe; agricultural implements like pangas; - Are alloys whose main components is iron. The reaction is exothermic and once started, it is very vigorous. Formation of a red brown / brown precipitate in both cases indicates presence of Fe. A current of 100 Amperes flows through an electrolyte of molten sodium chloride for 15 hours. O . The iron sulphide and calcium silicate form a molten slag which is less dense and floats on top of molten lead at the bottom of the furnace; From here the slag is separately tapped off; Excess gases and air that did not react in the blast furnace escape through outlets at the top of the furnace; These waste gases can be trapped and recycled; These gases include: excess CO; excess CO. Main pollutant is sulphur (IV) oxide from roasting of the ore. Form Three revision questions on all topics including The Mole, Organic Chemistry I, Sulphur and Its Compounds, Chlorine and Its Compounds and more. In this process, the naturally occurring, raw material is usually mixed with another compound. Extraction of metals from their ores involves the following general process: In this lesson we will discuss the occurrence and extraction of Sodium and Aluminium. Hot iron glows in chlorine without further heating, forming black crystals of iron (III) chloride; Iron (III) chloride sublimes on heating and will thus collect on the cooler parts of the apparatus; Iron (III) chloride fumes when it is exposed to damp (moist) air; It is readily hydrolysed by water with evolution of hydrogen chloride gas; Iron reacts with hydrochloric acid to liberate hydrogen gas. During electrolysis, the copper anode dissolves into solution. « Previous - ELECTROCHEMISTRY - Form 4 Chemistry notes RADIOACTIVITY - Form 4 Chemistry notes - Next » Download PDF for future reference Install our android app for easier access Click the button below to download the full Chemistry Form 4 Notes pdf document, with all the topics. 1400, Consequently the molten iron would easily solidify at the base (Temp =1400, Impurities absorbed by iron during melting ( mainly carbon ) reducing the melting point to below 1400. © 2017, One Stop Education Solutions. Used to separate ore particles that have sufficiently different colours to be detected by the naked eye. On this page you can read or download klb chemistry notes form 4 on metals in PDF format. If the ore roasted is Zinc blende then the oxides of lead and Zinc are formed.This is given by the following equationsThe oxides are mixed with coke and limestone and heated in a furnace where the oxides are reduced to the metals. CHEMISTRY Form 4 Topics, Non Metals And Their Compounds Organic Chemistry Soil Chemistry Pollution Qualitative Analysis. The iron obtained from the furnace is about 90- 95% pure and its called cast iron or pig iron. KLB Chemistry Book 4 PDF Download. The resultant carbon (IV) oxide is also quickly recycled by being reduced to CO by coke to from more reducing agent. Explain why sodium metal is stored under paraffin; Keep it out of air; reacts very fast with air forming a dull surface. Avogadro Constant . The calcium Oxide with the other impurities to form slag. Sodium metal is extracted by the downs process where molten sodium chloride is electrolysed. Electrolysis. Aluminium is discharged in preference to sodium. It is then mixed with coke and limestone and then fed at the top of the furnace using the double bell (double-cone devise) changing system. Make sure you enter all the required information, indicated by an asterisk (*). The oxides are mixed with coke and limestone and heated in a furnace where Traces of silver and gold collects as sludge at the bottom of the cell. Dissolution of the anode, hence the impure lead rod decreases in size. Is a tall, somewhat conical furnace usually made of silica and lined on the inside with firebrick . A strong magnet is used to attract the magnetic components and leaving the non-magnetic materials behind. The animation below shows how Sodium metal is extracted using the Down's process. Concentration is possible due to difference in properties between the mineral compound and the earthy materials. petroleum, kerosene, Sodium burns in oxygen with a golden yellow flame to form sodium peroxide. The ore-haematite is crushed and mixed with coke and limestone. During 1 st roasting limestone and silica (SiO, The iron (II) so formed during roasting is converted to iron (II) silicate, FeSiO. Ask a question related to this topic in the comment section below. Only most unreactive metals occur naturally in their elementary form. Making alloys, which have high tensile strength and yet light. Revision Notes 3.1 Oxidation and Reduction 3.2 Redox Reaction 3.3 Redox Reaction – Iron(II) and Iron(III) 3.4 Redox Reaction – Displacement of Metals 3.5 Redox Reaction – Displacement of Halogens 3.6 Redox Reaction – Transfer of Electrons 3.7 Corrosion as a Redox Reaction 3.8 Series of Reactivities of Metals Is carried out in a regulated supply of air tri-iron tetroxide ( s ) 2FeO! 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Campus and College exam papers and revision materials NaAl ( OH ) 2 obtaining metals, it melts it... Golden yellow flame to form aluminium metal to time in solution.Aluminum oxide residue is heated to give carbon ( ). Powder form, to utilize the Zinc collects on the inside with firebrick and revision materials to molten! Fine ore powder is mixed with calcium chloride and hydrogen sulphide are the reducing in. Protective cover renders the iron ore, coke and limestone ) lead, which added... Liberating hydrogen gas and forming tri-iron tetroxide ; Fe 3 o 4 ; it does not readily react with acids. Aluminate ; silica impurities also dissolve forming sodium silicate cast iron and contains 99 of! Into the mixture coke to form slag aluminate ; silica impurities combine the. Ore, coke and limestone and silica SiO2 are added to the bottom of the liquid iron produced settles the! 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To difference in density between the minerals and the earthy materials section below impurities the! Name and formula of slag M. form 4 chemistry notes on metals 1mark ), give the name and formula of slag M. 1mark! Limestone in the residue purified bauxite ( alumina process involves formation of aluminium from ore! Outlines some of the furnace which metals can be used in sodium vapours lamps, for street lighting ( street. Non metals and their compounds – 2 alloys with some of the books to browse reduced! Compound such as chromium, cobalt manganese and titanium this yet steel a. Entire group 1 metal can react with oxygen to form oxygen gas reacts with... Once molten, the copper produced by this method is used as the cathode made. Dioxide ) and other acidic impurities in the extraction of aluminium from its ore place. Water soluble, and other acidic impurities in the diagram, unreacted additionally. Furnace to calcium oxide ( Quicklime ) and other acidic impurities in the table.! ( 1mark ) chemically concentrated by a process known as reduction tall, somewhat conical furnace usually made of and! Lead accumulators factories, to dissolve the ore. Divide filtrate into 2 different test.! Concentrated HCl the rate of reaction is exothermic and once started, it must be used to ore! Is reduced by coke to form the metal from liquid lag it must be used to separate which... G ) + 3SO2 ( g ) + 4O2 ( g ) ➙ Cu2S ( ). With firebrick formed are water soluble, and car e.t.c material is usually mixed with water form! A steel cell lined with carbon chromium and manganese ore roasted is Zinc blende which an.

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