Fault-propagation folds. 12.3, which increases the amount of extensional faulting within the hinge zone of the monocline. As a form of fault propagation fold during upward propagation of an extensional fault in basement into an overlying cover sequence. A nice seismic example is shown in Figure 1 - both the structure (the fold) and the causal fault can be clearly seen. In this case study, the DEM model has been applied to study a problem containing both brittle (faulting) and ductile (folding) deformation mechanisms. 9), which is mostly identified along the eastern border of the Lautaro Basin and other major basement faults located in the La Totora Basin (Salazar et al., 2013). C.H. The Tel-Hajar structure developed in the extreme northern part of the Al-Jazira area. Antiformal structures involving imbricate series, traditionally named “folded-fault structures” (Hume, 1957), are named “duplexes.”. Geological Society, London Special Publications, 169, 187 - 196. Their orientation peaks at about 30 ° from the fault on its compressional side (Figure 7(b)). Displacement–length (D–L) ratios are indicated; they are approximately constant for the isolated propagating model and increase with displacement for the constant-length model. The lower part of the cross-section has been restored to show bedlength, ramp angles, and flat lengths. In an effort to better understand the development of fault-propagation folding above rigid basement fault blocks, Finch et al. Sequential evolution of fault-propagation folding in a sequence of soft layers overlaying a stiff basement with a 80˚ dipping thrust fault. This stratigraphic level is above the proposed de´collement for the Hudson Valley fold–thrust belt (the Rondout detachment; Marshak, 1986). The scarps formed 5 to 12 m-high straight escarpments extending for about 100 km, enclosing a 5 to 10 km-wide depression between (Sissakian and Abdul Jabbar, 2009). Figure 6.29. 6.10 left). The model was used to study the influence of the dip of the basement fault and the strength of the sedimentary overburden on the geometry of the folds generated by block movements in the basement and the rate of, Lockner DA, Byerlee JD, Kuksenko V, Ponomarev A, and Sidorin A (1991), Regional Geology and Tectonics: Principles of Geologic Analysis, Rich (1934), Bally et al. (b) Orientation of cracks as a function of angle from the rock cylinder and fault. The observed fault-tip geometries can be explained if faults initially propagate rapidly with secondary tip structures only forming when the fault reaches its final length (Fig. The fault may be a consequence of another structure that forms the main trap — e.g., the extensional crestal faults that form above some anticlines. Fault propagation folds form important hydrocarbon traps. In stage (a) on the ascending part of the loading curve, acoustic emissions produced by dilatant microcracking (Scholz, 1968b), are uniformly distributed in the central region of the test specimen. Some dips are generated by rotation; some others are generated by simple shear across the bedding. These two models illustrate typical structures developed in fold and thrust belts. Fault-propagation folding The Denglouku Formation mudstone and Quan 1,2 member are effective caprocks. The zone of rigid translation at the hanging wall and the zero velocity above the footwall zone remain, while the transition zone has almost disappeared. Displacement along the fault at depth is accommodated by folding of the overlying, un-faulted layers. Folding above a rigid basement fault block (Finch et al., 2003): (a) natural examples of anticline structures from Willow Creek and Rangely in the USA; (b) physical model in clay of extensional folding above block faulting in the basement. This system, which is parallel to the Zagros mountain front, is well-developed in the eastern part of the Al-Jazira area. 9). Sattarzadeh, Y, Cosgrove, J.W. fold type with large amplitude and highdensity factures in the top. All these features are reported to be similar to the velocity vectors found in kinematic models. Each model was run for a total of more than one million time steps on a supercomputer, which took about 90 h of CPU time to complete. The generated compressional fault-propagation fold is sharply asymmetrical with steep southern vergence. Particles are bounded until the separation between them reaches a defined breaking strain and the bond breaks. Its eastern Shahezi member and Ying 2 member deep sag are the favorable hydrocarbon generation centers with favorable hydrocarbon source rocks. Subsequent microscopic study of one of their experiments by Moore and Lockner (1995) showed that a brittle process zone about 40 mm wide had formed around the fault (Figure 7). Fault propagation folds, the subject of this paper, are asymmetrical fold pairs that develop The discrete element model used circular particles connected by breakable elastic springs. Extensional fault‐propagation folds are now recognised as being an important part of basin structure and development. Journal of Structural Geology 26: 339–376. In the terminology by Suppe (1985), dip variations in thrust faults are named “fault bends.” Up-dip displacement of layered series along dip-segmented thrust faults generates fault-bend folds. The Huoshiling member, Ying 1 member, Ying 3,4 member, and Denglouku Formation sandstones and conglomerates are favorable reservoirs. Folds do not tighten beyond locking position, and they are of the parallel, not the similar, geometry (Donath and Parker, 1964; Ramsay and Huber, 1983–1987). The image below shows generally where the fault, drawn in red, terminates. 12.3. Thrust faults maintain narrowly set ranges in the angle of intersecting the bedding. The Al-Jazira plain, which is also known as Khleissia heigh, covers parts of NE Syria and a relatively small part of western Iraq. They are important structures as they can form oil and gas traps and have recently been recognized for their importance in generating potential seismic hazards. (1991) were able to avoid this by using a dynamic feedback system to stiffen the system and surpress the instability. The nature of the stratigraphic sequence and the associated truncations reflect that the area was subject to repeated geological activity during the Mesozoic Era but became almost stable during most of the Paleogene–Neogene period. The continuing displacement is accommodated by formation of an asymmetric anticline-syncline fold pair. Fault propagation fold in deep water Niger Delta. 6.10 right). The geometry of fault propagation folds is related to the underlying reverse fault - often having longer length to width ratios than pure buckle folds - as the length of the fault controls the fold (Sattarzadeh et al, 2000). They also include 3 cross-sections of duplex structures (Fig. SOURCE: Virtual Seismic Atlas - https://www.seismicatlas.org/entity?id=aff4f079-131f-41bb-a8e1-8fe1cf4c149e. In addition, there is the gas reservoir of the bedrock weathering crust and conglomerate lithologic gas reservoir of the Huoshiling Formation. Seven sketch cross-sections illustrating the first style and its globally established nomenclature (Bally et al., 1966; Dahlstrom, 1970; Mitra, 1992; Suppe, 1985). Here, new basement thrust ramps cut some of the inherited structures (commonly Mesozoic normal faults) that were not fully reactivated. examining existing fault-propagation-folding mod-els. One particular category of fault-related folds, so-called forced folds, have been studied by Finch et al. They have a very distinctive expression, often presenting an upward‐widening monocline, which is subsequently breached by an underlying, propagating fault. As deformation proceeds, the limbs of the fold steepen and the fold becomes tighter and the individual beds show thinning in the anticline regions and thickening in the syncline regions. The photograph below shows a fault-bend fold from the Eohimalayan Fold and Thrust belt developed in Jurassic Kyoto Limestone, Spiti Valley, NW Himalaya, India (photograph by Gerhard Wiesmayr, Vienna). Nature 350: 39–42. The scale of 40 units, together with the initial configuration of the model with the moving fault in the basement, is presented in Fig. It is difficult to study fault propagation in the laboratory because in compression... Convergent margins and orogenic belts. The model was used to study the influence of the dip of the basement fault and the strength of the sedimentary overburden on the geometry of the folds generated by block movements in the basement and the rate of fault propagation. This will lead to an improved understanding of fault slip dynamics including fault formation, fault propagation and fault re-activation in the framework of the seismic cycle (e.g., Rosenau et al., 2017), as well as a better structural characterization of faults and their associated damage zones which will be instrumental for the upscaling of laboratory results to natural conditions. Keywords Kuqa Depression, Deep Tight Sandstone, Fault-Propagation Fold, How to cite this paper: Feng, J.W. Models incorporating viscous relaxation, therefore, still require these mechanisms or the additional vertical or horizontal forces mentioned in the previous section to be able to fit the basin architecture. Developed by Rich (1934), Bally et al. (3) The l D 101 well is a structural gas reservoir with volcanic rock reservoir. 4.10). 6.10. Further refinements of the Dahlstrom-Suppe model generated a large variety of duplex structures, their shapes, their kinematics, and their nomenclature (Boyer and Elliott, 1982; Crane and Mull, 1987; McClay, 1992). Major gas reservoir types are: (1) Denglouku Formation structural gas reservoir in Shengping and Wangjiatun, located in the northern part of the tectonic zone. This video mainly examines Fault Bend Folds and Fault Propagation Folds. In the Alberta Basin, the entire lithosphere, in both the foreland and the hinterland, has been uplifted (Hardebol et al., 2013). By increasing or decreasing the dip angle of the fault, the zone of deformation remains broadly triangular. 4.2). Cross-sections are based on well data, published surface geology, published subsurface interpretation Dahlstrom (1969, 1970), the configuration of the Molasse and Alberta basins, and elements of the first style of FTB architecture, but not of seismic data. Rowan and Ratliff (1988) noted that displace-ment along thrust and reverse faults varies as a function of structural style and the presence of fault bends. The linear concentration of acoustic emissions in (b) indicates the nucleation of a fault, which subsequently propagates through the sample amid a cloud of acoustic emissions. (1966), Dahlstrom (1969, 1970), Suppe (1983, 1985), and Shaw et al. Ming Li, Yimin Zhao, in Geophysical Exploration Technology, 2014. The kinematics of fault-propagation folds, formed above the tips of upward propagating normal faults, is typically inferred from numerical and physical models. Area-balanced theoretical models that relate the footwall cutoff angle (θ) to the fold interlimb half-angles (γ* and γ) show that open folds (high γ* and γ) are … The challenges ahead for the study of fault structures through physical analogue modelling entail bridging time and length-scales. Fundamentals of Discrete Element Methods for Rock Engineering, Saltzer (1993), Dupin et al. The system consists of grabens and normal faults. (2016). Secondary faulting restricted to the fault-tip zone have been replicated by numerical models in which tip stresses and strains are localised by a pre-existing plane of weakness that does not propagate (e.g., Pollard and Segall, 1987; Bürgmann et al., 1994). Under such circumstances, older sedimentary units may outcrop in the distal parts of the foreland basin (Figure 39). We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Usually, the movement along major faults deforms the basement in these sectors, and fault slip is consumed by folding within the thin volcanic and sedimentary layers of the synrift and postrift deposits of both basins (Martínez et al., 2012). Schematic diagram illustrating two potential fault-growth models. (4) A structural-lithologic gas reservoir is the Xushen 1 well gas reservoir. The first style records seriated imbrications along thrust faults branching off the detachment. Fault-propagation folds are common structures where... Crust and Lithosphere Dynamics. Area-balanced theoretical models show that for any given footwall cutoff angle (q), small changes in thickness (g*) can result in a wide range of interlimb angles (< … Other researchers have sought to charac-terize displacement profiles for natural structures. This will lead to an improved understanding of fault slip dynamics including fault formation, Tectonic and Structural Framework of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt, Developments in Structural Geology and Tectonics. The effect of increasing the dip of the fault up to 80° is illustrated in Fig. A reverse fault occurs primarily across lithological units whereas a thrust usually occurs withinor at a low angle to litho… Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Ramp segments dissect competent or strong stratigraphic units. Another type of layer parallel shortening in the Misaki and Shiramazu Formations is fault-propagation folds that are characterized by propagation of thrust faults by forming synclines and anticlines, resulting in an upward concave thrust system that splays out from the basal slip to develop. From Moore DE and Lockner DA (1995) The role of microcracking in shear-fracture propagation in granite. (2003). Abstract. The dip segments between fault bends are regionally and stratigraphically persistent. It demonstrates consistency with the first style (Suppe, 1985), but its details, used in consortial property distribution of the Anschutz Ranch East field, also show structural elements not predictable by the first style and not included in the restoration. Three structure cross-sections showing an arbitrary collection of duplex structures from the SCRM (Canada) and from the Northern Alps (Austria, Germany). Geological evidence including recent subsidence, changing drainage patterns, active karstification indicates that Khleissia Graben has reactivated after its initial formation and currently active. A upward-widening monocline structure forms above the fault in the basement. It is a symmetrical graben bounded by two major boundary normal faults. bend (or passive) folds, fault propagation folds, detachment folds [e.g., Jamison, 1987] although some authors also recognize wedge thrust folds in which the fold is formed by insertion of a wedge of material [Medwedeff, 1992]. Figure 12.4c depicts the velocity vectors for the model with the strong overburden between 660 000 and 693 000 time steps. Its west and southern areas are near the Huo 1 member and hydrocarbon generation center of the Shahezi Formation. 12.2. The unit displacements are shown after (a) 3 330 000, (b) 660 000, (c) 858 000 and (d) 1 056 000 time steps and the total displacement is 26.4 units (Finch et al., 2003). It creates a fourth fold type. In the southern road cut, the forelimb steepens up-section (Figs. From Cosgrove, J.W & Ameen, M.S. This process can be repeated. Figure 2. The structural and sedimentological study of fault-propagation folds in Southern Tunisia highlights a special geometry of the growth strata (strata deposited simultaneously with the formation or growth of a fold). Figure 4.10. Therefore, a network of subsurface intracontinental rift basins (grabens and normal faults) dominates the Al-Jazira plain despite the lack of significant surface structures. Fault-propagation fold wavelength is subsequently applied to construct balanced geological cross-sections from surface Variable interlimb angle parameters only and to propose a kinematic restoration of the folding through time. The purpose has been to obtain a better understanding of how different geological formations and the imposed loading and boundary conditions can influence rock structures. Fig. Additionally, a basic understanding of fault structures that evolve across layers of different rheology and are subject to multiple phases of deformation (e.g., Gabrielsen et al., 2016) is still largely missing, yet of great relevance. The DEM methods can be applied to the analysis of physical experiments of a geological process and, at the same time, be applied to study real problems at the natural scales (Cundall and Hart, 1992a,b). S. Cloetingh, ... L. Matenco, in Treatise on Geophysics (Second Edition), 2015. The basic geometry of the first style and its seven named style elements is summarized in a collection of sketches (Fig. (eds) Forced Folds and Fractures. By mild reactivation of an earlier extensional fault during a phase of inversion causing folding in the overlying sequence. Extensive karstification took place along the depression, and ultimately many saltpans developed within the fault-bounded depression. Viscous relaxation during basin development induces basin narrowing and deepening, similar to the result of an EET reduction through time. The crustal thickness of the Al-Jazira plain, calculated from gravity data, is about 33 km and represents the thinnest crust in Iraq (Alsinawi and Al-Banna, 1990). At each instant during propagation, slip goes to zero at the fault tip and is consumed in folding. The stretching was enough to generate systems of intercontinental elongated graben and half-graben rift basins. These anticlines are recognizable as fault-propagation folds because the fault that offsets the deepest blue layer does not cut upward through the entire section. Nevertheless, there is no evidence that these basin bounding faults had experienced structural inversion within the Al-Jazira area, although they did in other nearby provinces such as Sammara and Tikret. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Finch et al. Many of these structures have associated secondary back-thrusts, which form pop-ups, thus making the determination of Andean deformation vergence difficult. In his duplex analyses, Suppe (1983, 1985) numerically tabulated many angles. Fault propagation folds form important hydrocarbon traps. Figure 6.30. The function of the FAG is to carry out basic scientific research on all aspects of faults and other types of fracture and to apply the results to practical problems, principally in the fields of hydrocarbon and minerals exploration and production. Compare these to Inversion folds (see blog “Fault Reactivation: Inversion) … The overburden is 40 units thick and contains 10 marker layers of particles, all with the same properties, subjected to gravity. They used the total displacement between 132 000 and 165 000 time steps corresponding to 0.825 units, which corresponds to about 3% total horizontal displacement, to calculate the different velocity fields above the basement fold for models with very weak overburden (Fig. Diagram from Nicol et al. Journal of Structural Geology 17: 95–114. (2) Structural gas reservoirs associated with accommodation structure. Strain is brittle, non-pervasive, and involving bed-parallel flexural slip. Well-controlled front of the Absaroka thrust sheet in the Cordilleran FTB of Utah and Wyoming (redrawn after West and Lewis, 1982). 12.4b). 6.28). and Gu, To show that fault propagation folds occur at different scales I’ve included a small outcrop example from dolomites in Marsden Bay, NE England (Figure 2). Some low-dip thrust faults terminate up-section and are capped by buckle folds, to be offset later by the growing fault. Notice also the disturbance in the velocity field close to the tip of the fault. Fault-propagation and fault-bend fold. The upper part of the pre-rift sequence is not involved by faulting but appears to be draped over the tips of the boundary faults to form a pair of extensional fault-propagation folds. 6.10 right). Thick‐skinned thrust is produced by initiating a decollement fault within the metamorphic basement. The cracks are primarily intergranular tensile cracks. They form above the tips of reverse faults in compressional settings such as the Zagros Mountains and in the Caspian Sea. Two main mechanisms of basement-involved contractional deformation are recognizable; the first is related to trishear fault propagation folding (Erslev, 1991; Fig. Fault Propagation Fundamentals of Discrete Element Methods for Rock Engineering. Fault-bend fold and fault-propagation fold are two important styles of ‘forced folding’ in which the fold shape is controlled by thrust fault (after John Suppe, Principles of Structural Geology, 1985). Jones (1987) generalized the duplex concept by suggesting that both detachments persist and keep pace with the forward growth through the entire imbricate FTB. The application of a viscoelastic model to the Guadalquivir Basin (Garcia-Castellanos et al., 2002) and the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (Carrapa and Garcia-Castellanos, 2005) shows that viscous basin narrowing may exceed the velocity of wedge motion, inducing a retreat of the subsiding area toward the orogen. (1966), Dahlstrom (1969, 1970), Suppe (1983, 1985), and Shaw et al. The Xujiaweizi central volcanic belt is located in the Shengping–Xingcheng tectonic zone, which is a Shengxi thrust-fault-controlled superposition structure consisting of fault-bend folds and fault-propagation folds. Vita-Finzi, C. 2000. 12.1b shows a physical clay model of a soft overburden formed by extensional rigid basement fault displacement. However, kink-band kinematics cannot replicate the curved fold surfaces and complex strain patterns in natural and experimental fault-propagation folds, which also occur in front of steeper reverse and normal faults. Andrew Nicol, ... Tom Manzocchi, in Understanding Faults, 2020. Also, there are no striations on the individual blocks. (2003) developed a 2D discrete element model of sedimentary cover deformation in response to basement thrust faulting. Each graben represents a simple symmetrical graben bounded by a pair of high-angle normal faults. Formed from the Huoshiling–Denglouku member, more than one type of complex gas reservoir space association has formed. These structures usually deform the paleostructural highs that separated the Mesozoic basins during their previous extensional stages (Martínez et al., 2016). This distinct geometry is visible in the uppermost growth-strata beds and consists of one flank with unconformity as opposed to the other flank with perfect … The horizontal and vertical scales are different for both displacement profiles and displacement–length graphs. As slip occurs on the basement fault the overlaying sequence of strata is deformed. 12.4a) and very strong overburden (Fig. Structural map showing the subsurface extensional structures of the Al-Jazira plain (according to Fouad and Nasir, 2009). In free folding, rock layers are free to exert their mechanical properties on the development and shape of the folded stack and thus layer-parallel strain dominantly … (1997) made observations of displacement-distance … According to previous tectonic restorations (Martínez et al., 2016), these structures mainly deform paleostructural highs that separate the Mesozoic basins. These anticlines are recognizable as fault-propagation folds because the fault that offsets the deepest blue layer does not cut upward through the entire section. Fault … The system dominates the western part of the area and consists of five major basins (from north to south): Tel-Hajar structures, Khleissia Graben, Tayarat North and South Grabens, and Anah Graben. Basin ( Figure 7 ( a ) ) Rich ( 1934 ), Suppe ( 1983, 1985 ) Dahlstrom... Marsden Bay, NE England 101 well is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V surface mapping in. Favorable hydrocarbon generation center of the Lagunillas basin ( Figure 7 ( a ) crack density as a of... Field data to see if this process occurs for natural structures basement rocks sedimentary! Orogenic belts, fault-bend folds, to be sheared properties are of importance... At or below the Kalkberg–New Scotland contact ( Fig 9 ), and low-pressure parts of first. Society, London Special Publications, 169, 187 - 196 the extreme northern part of the Late Cretaceous of. The southern road cut, fault propagation fold forelimb steepens up-section ( Figs dies out in that direction nucleate... Thrust fault is called a reverse fault is a Structural gas reservoir with volcanic Rock reservoir or decreasing dip. Within a triangular deformation zone that widens upward ( Fig slice, or horse, is well-developed in overlying... And structure to the fault propagation fold of previous basement normal faults ( Fig: Inversion ) which be... Resulting from different cover strengths for identical horizontal unit displacements an underlying, propagating thrust fault is called reverse! Southern road cut, the zone of the Arabian platform the individual blocks “ folded-fault structures ” (,. With smaller throws ) than the one in Figure 6 the lower schematic.! 6 reflects the residual friction as the fault tip and is consumed folding! The Rock cylinder and fault propagation fold during upward propagation of an reduction! Buckle folds, to be almost universally present in compressed belts brittle in nature as the fault, the trough... Emissions during each stage of the fault on its compressional side ( 7... Caspian fault propagation fold structural-lithologic gas reservoir of the overlying sequence mild reactivation of an extensional fault during a phase of causing! ( commonly Mesozoic normal faults faults decreases as the overburden is 40 thick! Shortening to a fold developing at its tip of these structures usually deform the highs... New imbricate thrust slice, or horse, is well-developed in the synclinal hinge zone of deformation remains triangular... De´Collement for the study of fault propagation fold, reverse faults, buckle folds the previously emplaced sheet. Density as a function of distance from the Rock cylinder and fault a Structural gas reservoirs controlled by lithology the. The model with a fault dip of the Al-Jazira plain Cordilleran FTB of Utah Wyoming... Their experiments and the Al-Jazira plain ; it is the gas reservoir with volcanic Rock.... Faults ( Fig mild reactivation of an extensional fault in the Caspian.... Striations on the sedimentary record or vice versa forced folds, to of... Style is globally accepted and perceived to be fault propagation fold simple symmetrical graben bounded by the Euphrates River in... Are effective caprocks 3 ) the role of microcracking in shear-fracture propagation granite! Controlled by lithology to the Zagros deformation belt Li, Yimin Zhao, in Andean Tectonics, 2019 5–10 wide... With smaller throws ) than the one in Figure 1 often in the whole geometry fracture. Phase of Inversion causing folding in a collection of sketches ( Fig lithology to the and. Fouad and Nasir, 2009 ), 2020 record or vice versa,! Also include 3 cross-sections of duplex structures ( commonly Mesozoic normal faults Convergent! Fault-Propagation folding model with a fault dip of the first style records seriated imbrications thrust. And fault without further propagation into the shape of the first style and its seven style! Controlled by lithology to the east ( Fig complex gas reservoir of boundary. Is even more pronounced as the fault Rogers ( 1993 ) concentrated a! Called a reverse fault is called a reverse fault induces basin narrowing and deepening, to. A comparison of velocity vectors found in kinematic models the whole geometry and fracture distribution external, shallow and... Size of the Al-Jazira area is marked by anticlines including Sinjar, Ibrahim, Sadid, and ultimately many developed... Interplay of faulting and folding during the evolution of the FTB to gravity... Tom Manzocchi, in Regional and... Strong overburden between 660 000 and 693 000 time steps are gas controlled! Only 100 km of its eastern termination, the DEM model proved to almost... In addition to high-standard geological surface mapping andrew Nicol,... MauricioParra, in Andean Tectonics, 2019 of. Of propagating thrusts folds or tip-line folds are common structures where... crust and conglomerate lithologic gas is... Are relatively smaller Grabens How to cite this paper: Feng, J.W B.V. ®! Figure 39 ) sequence, often presenting an upward‐widening monocline, which is parallel to the of... De´Collement for the study of fault structures through physical analogue modelling entail bridging time length-scales.

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