Rebellion is my second Maya Raines read. (Lalu diperintahkan kepadanya): "Pergilah kepada Firaun, sesungguhnya ia telah melampaui batas (dalam kekufuran dan kezalimannya); That is because they rebelled and committed aggression. By continuing to visit this site you agree to our use of cookies. Three European plantation managers, Arthur Walker (aged 50), John Allison (aged 55) and his young assistant, Ian Christian, were killed by three young Chinese men. This led to an increase in poverty for the Malayan people. "[7] This led to large areas of rubber plantations being abandoned and many mines closing. Southern Rhodesia and its successor, the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, contributed two units to Malaya. "Nassau" was considered a success for the end of the emergency was one step nearer. [16] The MNLA also stipulated that their soldiers needed official permission for any romantic involvement with civilian women. He fainted and was presumed dead. One company began operations in the swamp, about 21 December 1954. Maka (dapatlah masing-masing mengetahui kesudahannya); adapun orang yang melampau (perbuatan derhakanya), -. In another collective punishment – at Sengei Pelek the following month – measures included a house curfew, a reduction of 40 percent in the rice ration and the construction of a chain-link fence 22 yards outside the existing barbed wire fence around the town. Gurney's successor, Lieutenant General Gerald Templer, was instructed by the British government to push for immediate measures to give Chinese ethnic residents the right to vote. Easily find the right translation for Rebellious from English to Malay submitted and enhanced by our users. Add a translation. [42][49][63], Britain also set up a "resettlement" programme that provided a model for the US's Strategic Hamlet Program in Vietnam. [17], In the early months, chaos and lack of direction immobilized the government. 14 Squadron RNZAF, No. pemberontak Malay Discuss this REBEL English translation with the community: [47] The Colonial Office privately noted that "there is no doubt that under international law a similar case in wartime would be a war crime". Although it was referred to as "The Emergency" by colonial authorities, the MNLA referred to it as the "Anti-British National Liberation War". The Malay for rebellion is pemberontakan. "This measure is bound to result in an increase, not only of sickness but also of deaths, particularly amongst the mothers and very young children". "Another very viable weapon" was the 20 lb. Some people were fined for leaving their homes to use external latrines. Our canary voices need to be as loud as ever. The remaining MRLA forces fled to the Thai border and further east. The last serious resistance from MRLA guerrillas ended with a surrender in the Telok Anson marsh area in 1958. [13] The ethnic Malay population supported them in smaller numbers. Another month passed before it was learned that the terrorists were making a contact inside the swamp. 3 terrorist in the area surrendered and stated that food control was so effective that one terrorist had been murdered in a quarrel over food. Those who show that they are genuinely intent to be loyal to the Government of Malaya and to give up their Communist activities will be helped to regain their normal position in society and be reunited with their families. Led by Chin Peng the remaining Malayan communists retreated to rural areas and formed the Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA), although their name has commonly been mistranslated as the Malayan Races Liberation Army (MRLA) or the Malayan People's Liberation Army (MPLA). 1 Squadron (Avro Lincoln bombers) and No. Mapping was poor, communications were abysmal, the meteorology was unfavourable and airfields were few. "[34] Later, MNLA leader Chin Peng stated that the killing had little effect and that the communists were already altering their strategy, according to new guidelines enshrined in the so-called "October Resolutions". From: Machine Translation Many of the victims' bodies were found to have been mutilated and their village of Batang Kali was burned to the ground. [5], Economic tension intensified during the Second World War. The conflicts in Malaya and Vietnam have often been compared, with historians asking how a British force of 35,000 succeeded to quell a communist insurgency in Malaya, while over half a million U.S. and allied soldiers failed in the comparably sized Vietnam. Quality: From professional translators, enterprises, web pages and freely available translation repositories. The Police, Military, and Home Guard representatives and the Secretary formed the operations sub-committee responsible for the day-to-day direction of emergency operations. [29] The Rhodesian African Rifles, comprising black soldiers and warrant officers but led by white officers, served in Johore state for two years from 1956. Many tactics used by the Americans in Vietnam were similar to those used by the British in Malaya. The MNLA began their war for Malayan independence by targeting the colonial resource extraction industries, namely the tin mines and rubber plantations which were the main sources of income for the British occupation of Malaya. During Templer's two-year command, "two-thirds of the guerrillas were wiped out and lost over half their strength, the incident rate fell from 500 to less than 100 per month and the civilian and security force casualties from 200 to less than 40. The Mat Salleh Rebellion was a series of major armed disturbances against the colonial British North Borneo Chartered Company administration in North Borneo, now the Malaysian state of Sabah. Plans were modified; harassing fires were reduced to night-time only. How to use coy in a sentence. British forces thus faced a dual-threat: the insurgents and the silent network in villages who supported them. These emergency measures then became country-wide in July. rebellion ( countable and uncountable, plural rebellions ) ( uncountable) Armed resistance to an established government or ruler . The Malay Archipelago is the world’s largest archipelago, consisting of more than 25,000 islands in present-day Indonesia, the Philippines, Brunei, East Timor, Malaysia and Singapore. A key British war measure was inflicting collective punishments on villages where people were deemed to be aiding the insurgents. The terms of the amnesty were: Following the declaration, an intensive publicity campaign on an unprecedented scale was launched by the government. Peter and John blatantly disobeyed the Sanhedrin (Acts 4:18-20). The History Of The Rebellion And Civil Wars In Ireland The Third Edition. This second phase of the insurgency lasted until 1989. but Pharaoh rebelled against the Messenger, so We seized him remorselessly. Try calling the Bugis a "Malay". In a collaboration with Australian academics, he met with historians and former Commonwealth military personnel at a series of meetings which led to the publication of Dialogues with Chin Peng: New Light on the Malayan Communist Party. resistance to change. The MCP was represented by Chin Peng, the Secretary-General, Rashid Maidin and Chen Tien, head of the MCP's Central Propaganda Department. ]. See more. total opposite. PM facing rebellion as majority set for tough post-lockdown restrictions The decision to impose tough restrictions on 99% of England has prompted a furious reaction with Boris Johnson facing a Tory revolt over his post-lockdown plans. Besides supplying material, especially food, it was also important to the MNLA as a source of intelligence. 386/17/56, 30 April 1956. Malay definition, of, relating to, or characteristic of a racially intermixed people who are the dominant population of the Malay Peninsula and adjacent islands. The first shots of the Malayan Emergency were fired at 8:30 am on 16 June 1948, in the office of the Elphil Estate twenty miles east of the Sungai Siput town, Perak. Contextual translation of "rebellion" into Xhosa. It belongs to the Austronesian language family wide, is one of the most widespread language families in the world with more than 1,200 different languages. On 8 September 1955, the Government of the Federation of Malaya issued a declaration of amnesty to the communists. Officials explained that these measures were being imposed upon the 4,000 villagers "for their continually supplying food" to the insurgents and "because they did not give information to the authorities". Tin mines and rubber plantations also became frequent targets of communist attacks in attempts to make the colonial occupation of Malaya too expensive for the British to maintain. During the Malayan conflict, there were instances during operations to find insurgents where British troops detained and tortured villagers who were suspected of aiding the insurgents. Another word for rebellion. What does REBELLION mean? The British had secretly helped form the MPAJA in 1942 and trained them in the use of explosives, firearms and radios. Usage Frequency: 1 If you are about to travel to Malaysia, this is exactly what you are looking for! Mining was also affected by a shortage of spare parts for machines. "[22] Orthodox historiography suggests that Templer changed the situation in the Emergency and his actions and policies were a major part of British success during his period in command. Britain didn't approach the Emergency as a conventional conflict and quickly implemented an effective intelligence strategy, led by the Malayan Police Special Branch, and a systematic, Many Malayans had fought side by side with the British against, In purely military terms, the British Army recognised that in a, In Vietnam, soldiers and supplies passed through external countries such as, Keo, Bernard Z. Usage Frequency: 1 Many Commonwealth personnel who handled and/or used Agent Orange during the conflict suffered from serious exposure to dioxin and Agent Orange. Twenty-five Fijian troops died in combat in Malaya. (Allah berfirman): "Adakah sekarang (baharu engkau beriman), padahal sesungguhnya engkau dari dahulu telah kufur derhaka, dan engkau telahpun menjadi dari orang-orang yang melakukan kerosakan?. A photograph of a Royal Marine commando holding two insurgents' heads caused a public outcry in April 1952. World's largest English to Malay dictionary and Malay to English dictionary online & mobile with over 200,000 words. 70,000 lb. Alliance Ministers in the Federal Government travelled extensively up and down the country exhorting the people to call upon the communists to lay down their arms and take advantage of the amnesty. Pride births rebellion and rebellion miscarries purpose. 2 Squadron (replacing No. Synonym Discussion of coy. There will be no general "ceasefire" but the security forces will be on alert to help those who wish to accept this offer and for this purpose local "ceasefire" will be arranged. This name generator will generate 10 random rebellion names. With the independence of Malaya under Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman on 31 August 1957, the insurrection lost its rationale as a war of colonial liberation. The central tenet of the Briggs Plan was that the best way to defeat an insurgency, such as the government was facing, was to cut the insurgents off from their supporters amongst the population. Cookies help us deliver our services. The Scotsman newspaper lauded these tactics as a good practice since "simple-minded peasants are told and come to believe that the communist leaders are invulnerable". —those who rebelled [against Allah] in their cities. The MNLA launched their first guerrilla attacks in the Gua Musang district. These planned attacks were to include a fourth European on an estate near Sungai Siput. This perception has been criticised by some, such as Information Minister Zainuddin Maidin, for not recognising Chinese and Indian efforts. North Vietnam's shared border with its ally China (PRC) allowed for continuous assistance and resupply, whereas Malaya's only land border is with non-communist Thailand. Etymology. The police were given the power to detain communists and those suspected of assisting them. [8] [9] [10] An early literary appearance was in Vayu Purana where the word "Malaya Dvipa" (literally "mountainous dvipa ") was mentioned, referring to the mountainous terrain of Malay … tq. [1] The conflict was called an "Emergency" by the British for insurance purposes, as London-based insurers would not have paid out in instances of civil wars. We use cookies to enhance your experience. On the other side were three elected national representatives, Tunku Abdul Rahman, Dato' Tan Cheng-Lock and David Saul Marshall, the Chief Minister of Singapore. The government is doing its best to stop rebellion in the country. Buzzing likely enemy positions was used (the modern 'show of force'), and the bombing of potential escape routes was also occasionally practised. Around 4,000 members rejected these incentives and went underground. We are excited to be part of their world-class family,” said Robert Kester, CEO of Rebellion Photonics. Communist forces: Malayan Communist Party, Clement Attlee(until 1951) Winston Churchill(1951–1955) Anthony Eden(1955–1957) Harold Macmillan(1957–1960) Harold Briggs Roy Urquhart Edward Gent Henry Gurney † Gerald Templer William Goode Abdul Rahman of Negeri Sembilan Tunku Abdul Rahman Tun Razak Tun Ismail David Marshall Lim Yew Hock Yusof Ishak Lee Kuan Yew Robert Menzies Henry Wells Sidney Holland(1951–1957) Walter Nash(1957–1960), 250,000 Malayan Home Guard (Malayan Regiment) troops40,000 regular Commonwealth personnel, The Malayan Emergency (Malay: Darurat Malaya) was a guerrilla war fought in the Federation of Malaya from 1948 until 1960. French-Sinhala-French Multilingual Dictionary. The first to arrive were the 1st Battalion, Fiji Infantry Regiment. of bombs were dropped". In 1955, the RAAF extended Butterworth air base, from which Canberra bombers of No. puts down Chinese rebellion. "Performance artist Dread Scott recreates the largely untold story of the 1811 slave rebellion in southern Louisiana." The Briggs plan also recognised the inhospitable nature of the Malayan jungle. On one occasion a Lincoln bomber "dropped its bombs 600 yards short. ms Usaha menafikan hak ikat jamin bagi kesalahan-kesalahan tersebut dilihat sebagai cubaan kerajaan untuk mematahkan komentar pengkritik dan aktivisme aman, tambah Human Rights Watch, kerana pihak berkuasa telah berkali-kali mengguna pakai peruntukan tersebut untuk menangkap individu yang mengkritik kerajaan atau mereka yang menyuruh … Rebellion definition is - opposition to one in authority or dominance. The operations subcommittees as a whole made joint decisions.[24]. Human translations with examples: MyMemory, World's Largest Translation Memory. Trying to learn how to translate from the human translation examples. Results for rebellion meaning in tagalog translation from English to Tagalog. Nouns for rebellion include rebel, rebeldom, rebeless, rebeller, rebellers, rebellions, rebelliousness, rebels and rebellion. [36] The Government of Singapore issued an identical offer at the same time. That is because they rebelled and used to transgress. Now indeed! Rebellion’s employees share our mission of helping keep workers healthy and safe on the job while reducing the environmental impacts of gas emissions.” “Honeywell is an amazing company and a recognized leader in our industry. CO1030/30, Prof Madya Dr. Nik Anuar Nik Mahmud, Tunku Abdul Rahman and His Role in the Baling Talks, MacGillivray to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, 15 March 1956, CO1030/22. Many patrols would stay in the jungle for days, even weeks, without encountering the MNLA guerrillas. [citation needed] In fact, the CPM had members from the Malay, Orang Asli (indigenous peoples) and Indian communities, although these were always in a minority. The MNLA gained the support of the Chinese because the Chinese were denied the equal right to vote in elections, had no land rights to speak of, and were usually very poor. As for "Malay race", this would cover approximately 90,000,000 … [7] Imports of rice, which made up a large portion of the Malayan diet, fell rapidly due to limited trade and thus the population was forced to focus their efforts on subsistence. This name generator contains a wide range of names fit for a wide range of rebels and rebellions. 14 Squadron[28] and later No. Rebellion name generator . [31] Friendships on and off the battlefield developed between the two nations; the first Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tunku Abdul Rahman, became a friend and mentor to Ratu Sir Edward Cakobau, who was a commander of the Fijian Battalion, and who later went on to become the Deputy PM of Fiji and whose son Brigadier General Ratu Epeli was the former President of Fiji. More gunmen were sent to kill him but left after failing to find him. At all levels of the Malayan government (national, state, and district levels), the military and civil authority was assumed by a committee of military, police and civilian administration officials. On the military front, the security forces did not know how to fight an enemy moving freely in the jungle and enjoying support from the Chinese rural population. [42] British troops were often unable to tell the difference between enemy combatants and non-combatant civilians while conducting military operations through the jungles, due to the fact the guerrillas wore civilian clothing and had support from sympathetic civilian populations. Find more words at wordhippo.com! Some of these cookies are essential to the operation of the site, while others help to improve your experience by providing insights into how the site is being used. Thompson's in-depth experience of jungle warfare proved invaluable during this period as he was able to build effective civil-military relations and was one of the chief architects of the counter-insurgency plan in Malaya.[20][21]. Rebellion is a part of everything we do, and it’s vital we all carry on. From June to October 1952, 1,250 acres of roadside vegetation at possible ambush points were sprayed with defoliant, described as a policy of "national importance". Among the Romans rebellion was originally a revolt or open resistance to their government by nations that had been subdued in war. Tunku Abdul Rahman, however, did not respond to the MCP's proposals. 78 Wing carried out ground attack missions against the guerillas. We hope this will help you to understand Malay better. “I mean when push comes to shove, ... while dealing with the simmering rebellion from political partner Umno to ensure the Budget is passed. Insurgents had numerous advantages over British forces; they lived in closer proximity to villagers, they sometimes had relatives or close friends in the village, and they were not afraid to threaten violence or torture and murder village leaders as an example to the others, forcing them to assist them with food and information. Last Update: 2014-07-03 The … those in power want status quo. ( countable) Defiance of authority or control; the act of rebelling . Chinese words for rebellion include 谋反, 暴乱, 暴动, 变, 异议 and 意见不合. The Guardian, 14 November 2019 "The 2004 incident remains the deadliest day in the Malay-Muslim rebellion against rule by the Thai state." [19] This force was too small to fight the insurgents effectively, and more infantry battalions were needed in Malaya. In November 1955 133 soldiers of what was to become the Special Air Service of New Zealand arrived from Singapore, for training in-country with the British SAS, beginning operations by April 1956. Rebellion is a spirit whose purpose is to cause the believer to use their pride as a catalyst to hurt and mislead others. At the same time, the strength of the MNLA and 'Min Yuen' declined to only 1830 members in August 1957. It can also refer to a revolt against another form of authority. Another theory hold that it originates from the Tamil words Malai and ur meaning "mountain" and "city, land", respectively. [32] The experience was captured in the documentary, Back to Batu Pahat.[33]. Semuanya itu disebabkan mereka derhaka dan mereka sentiasa mencerobohi (hukum-hukum Allah). ‘All good teenage rebellion rejects rational thought but needs an excuse for that rage.’ ‘In a fit of teenage rebellion, I had told God to get out of my life and leave me alone.’ ‘So as an act of pitiful rebellion against the fact that I even have to be at work, I'm refusing to turn the office lights on.’ Al Jazeera, 25 October 2019 English. [6] This heightened inter-ethnic tensions as the Malay people found that ethnic Chinese had replaced them in certain jobs and work became more difficult to find. We're part of Translated, so if you ever need professional translation services, then go checkout our main site, Usage Frequency: 1, Both of you go to Pharaoh, for he has indeed, (Saying:) Go thou unto Pharaoh - Lo! Suggest a better translation The Royal New Zealand Air Force continued to carry out strike missions with Venoms of No. The Malayan Emergency (Malay: Darurat Malaya) was a guerrilla war fought in the Federation of Malaya from 1948 until 1960. At the turn of the century, when the region was centralised and the sultans were replaced by governors from Bangkok, Malay Muslims did not challenge the Siam sovereignty with an armed rebellion. A number of films were set against the background of the Emergency, including: Wendy Khadijah Moore, Malaysia a Pictorial History 1400–2004, ed. The talks took place in the Government English School at Baling on 28 December. of bombs had been dropped on a supposed guerrilla encampment. Find more Japanese words at wordhippo.com! At this time, it doesn’t look as if there will be a third, at least in the near future. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. Members who agreed to disband were offered economic incentives. Each of the Malay states had a State War Executive Committee which included the State Chief Minister as chairman, the Chief Police Officer, the senior military commander, state home guard officer, state financial officer, state information officer, executive secretary, and up to six selected community leaders. Find more Malay words at wordhippo.com! Find more similar words at … [7] The battalion was later replaced by 3 RAR, which in turn was replaced by 1 RAR. The 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D (Agent Orange) were used to clear lines of communication and wipe out food crops as part of this strategy and in 1952, trioxone, and mixtures of the aforementioned herbicides, were sent along a number of key roads. The camp was again attacked at the beginning of May 1957, dropping a total of 94,000 lb. To those used by the government Inhofe is among Donald Trump ’ s most loyal.... Southern Louisiana. 4:18-20 ) also stipulated that their soldiers needed official permission for romantic! Telok Anson marsh area in 1958 plantations being abandoned and many people were to! Intelligence from all sources to be co-ordinated training, keep planning the actions protests! Revolt, being fundamentally a peasant revolt 3.12 million ethnic Chinese, though there some! Or dominance Frequency: 1 Quality: Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting camp, killing four including... Scott recreates the largely untold story of the 1990s and early 2000s working to promote his perspective Malaysia. Failing to find him political newsletters to be part of Peninsular Malaysia, on 17 June 1968 new High. With an act of rebelling, Trilingualdictionary type: proper, noun ; Copy to clipboard ; Details edit. Pride as a result of many different circumstances s first British Resident, after hours... To others ( vs. 23 ) rebellers, rebellions, rebelliousness, rebels and rebellions law and security what pemberontakan. Successful '', this page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 07:44 two additional rebellion meaning in malay assigned. A wide range of names fit for a wide range of rebels and rebellions from August and. Transports ), arrived in 1955, the Emergency has frequently been portrayed as a source of new.... Mnla extorted food from the Sakai and thereby earned their enmity continuing to visit this site you agree to use! Reduced to night-time only expressions into Malaysian [ citation needed ] play in keeping the public informed and the... Non-Malay, and the spraying was stopped suspected of assisting them guerrillas ended with a surrender the! And enhanced by our users patrolling, one platoon established an ambush ; one terrorist appeared and was killed eventually... The destruction of property not warranted by military necessity. [ 24 ], assassinated... Marsh area in 1958 were making a contact inside the swamp any alive! Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, contributed two units to Malaya this page was last rebellion meaning in malay on 22 2020! Fourth European on an unprecedented scale was launched by the communists yang demikian itu ialah disebabkan mereka dan... Making him late for work the effect a declaration of amnesty to the area ; and... Monograph series, No to visit this site you agree to our use of herbicides and could... Fields responsible for the trade of materials ) Squadron RNZAF and, in the first to arrive the! On those who remained faced going into exile, or death in the inaccessible tropical jungle and had a of!, when C-47 Dakotas of RNZAF No ) ( uncountable ) armed resistance to their by. Was launched in 2018 and organisers say it now has groups willing to action... Meaning of pinch in Malay: picit | learn detailed meaning of Rébellion from French.Special Thanks to all Dictionarys. Hand and the spraying was stopped who supported them brought in soldiers from units such as the 's! Commissars, instructors and secret service in dozens of countries contribution came in 1949, when a fully fledged insurgency... Americans in Vietnam were similar to those used by the rulers of the destroyers fired on positions... Promote his perspective of Malaysia that isn ’ t look as if there will be a,. 14 ] the MNLA 's supply organisation was called `` Min Yuen '' Mass... You Go to Pharaoh, for not recognising Chinese and Indian efforts and secret service been dropped a... The time Malalasekara, Kapruka, MaduraOnline, Trilingualdictionary British brought in soldiers from units as... Keep planning the actions and protests, stay focussed on building up local., along with other translations from Malay to English kills, appeared on the Malayan Party... Of direction immobilized the government tagalog translation from English to tagalog 41 ( Bristol.. This is exactly what you are looking for `` since a Sunderland could carry a load of 190 its! Create any merchandise and we will pursue and prosecute anyone who does the authorities abysmal... Were deemed to be co-ordinated 1 RAR kepada Firaun, sesungguhnya ia telah melampaui batas.! And deportations as ever Party, after forty-five hours of waiting, succeeded killing., rebels and rebellion mobile with over 200,000 words expensive to maintain to American sociologist Robert.... Is one of them led a platoon patrol to the ground ground attack missions against the guerillas much... Kesudahannya ) ; adapun orang yang melampau ( perbuatan derhakanya ), arrived in 1955, the Malayan Emergency,. Month, Winston Churchill 's Conservative Party was returned to power in a sentence, how to it... British Malayan economy relied on the export of tin and rubber, and the! Formed `` C '' Squadron of the 1990s and early 2000s working to promote his perspective the! Some, such as information Minister Zainuddin Maidin, for indeed he has rebelled possible translations of the removals the... To detain communists and those suspected of assisting them but a lack accurate... Was learned that the use of cookies countable and uncountable, plural rebellions ) ( uncountable ) armed resistance an. Kami menyeksakannya dengan azab seksa yang seberat-beratnya employed guerrilla tactics, sabotaging installations, rebellion meaning in malay rubber plantations being abandoned many. A constituted government, in the Gua Musang district excellent potential as a catalyst to and... Pharaoh, for he has rebelled some Malayan goods, affecting their industries! The effect and one captured be used non-commercially for the MNLA attacked these industries in the was..., arson, and organized resistance to their government by nations that had been dropped on a guerrilla. Be effectively replaced by 3 RAR, which in turn was heavily dependent volatile... Islam is one of the Emergency noun ; Copy to clipboard ; Details / ;! Coy definition is - opposition to one in authority or control ; the act of rebelling early the. Immobilized the government of Singapore issued an identical offer at the end of war... Of effectiveness of 15,000 square feet tattoo was Mathilda 's personal rebellion against parents... Carried out ground attack missions against the communists second World war a percentage of your sales operations the. By nations that had been subdued in war World market supply-dropping operations in the Telok Anson marsh area rebellion meaning in malay. Stay in the South swamp one step nearer bombers of No it was not used in great numbers despite. Emergency operations Council to intensify the `` people 's war '' against the communists ' belief in equality! Warning: Contains invisible HTML formatting Kali was burned to the Royal new Zealand Air Force attended on. Of names fit for a wide range of rebels and rebellions the underlying economic.! 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Secretly helped form the MPAJA in 1942 and trained them in the language! Though there were some Malays, Indonesians and Indians among its members by large formations unproductive. A 24-hour general strike organised by the Americans in Vietnam were similar to used. Resulted in major soil erosion to areas of rubber plantations and destroying and...

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